SANGRE DE GRADO
Blood of the Dragon, Crofelemer, Croton lechleri, Drago, Dragon's Blood, Dragon’s Blood Croton, Lan-Hiqui, Laniqui, Palo de Grado, Sang de Dragon, Sangre de Drago, Sangre de Dragon, Sangre de Grado, Sangue de Agua, Sangue de Drago, SP 303, SP-303, Taspine.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationSangre de grado is a tree that grows in the Amazon region of South America. The tree bark and sap are used to make medicine.
A chemical in sangre de grado known as crofelemer (SP-303) was approved as a drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012.
Sangre de grado or crofelemer is used for diarrhea associated with cholera, AIDS, traveling, the bug Clostridium difficile, or treatment with antibiotics. Sangre de grado is also used for treating cancer, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), lung infections, fever, hemorrhage, bleeding gums, wounds, broken bones, vaginal infections, painful menstrual periods, hemorrhoids, and a skin condition called eczema. Other uses include treating ulcers of the mouth, throat, stomach, or intestine.
Some people apply sangre de grado or crofelemer to the skin for herpes simplex virus (types 1 and 2). It is also applied to the skin for bug bites and skin reactions from plants.
How does it work?Sangre de grado appears to help diarrhea by slowing down the amount of water that is lost through the intestines. It might also prevent the movement of some viruses into cells. It might also block pain signals in the nerves.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- AIDS-related diarrhea. Crofelemer is a chemical from sangre de grado. Research shows that taking crofelemer reduces diarrhea in people with AIDS-related diarrhea. This product is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for this condition.
- Herpes outbreaks (genital and anal). Crofelemer is a chemical from sangre de grado. Research shows that applying crofelemer to the skin helps treat genital and anal herpes outbreaks in people with AIDS. But it might not be helpful for herpes outbreaks that do not respond to acyclovir, a drug used to treat herpes infections.
- Traveler's diarrhea. Crofelemer is a chemical from sangre de grado. Research shows that taking crofelemer helps traveler's diarrhea go away about 6-8 hours faster.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Crofelemer is a chemical from sangre de grado. Research shows that taking crofelemer does not reduce pain or diarrhea in people with diarrhea-predominant IBS.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Insect bites and allergic plant reactions. Early research shows that applying sangre de grado to the skin relieves symptoms of insect bites and skin irritation due to plants.
- Diarrhea caused by cholera, Clostridium difficile, or treatment with antibiotics.
- Lung infections.
- Mouth and throat ulcers.
- Stomach and intestinal ulcers.
- Bleeding gums.
- Broken bones.
- Vaginal infections.
- Painful menstrual periods.
- A skin condition called eczema.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyIt is LIKELY SAFE to take crofelemer (SP-303), a chemical isolated from sangre de grado, by mouth. It is POSSIBLY SAFE to apply crofelemer (SP-303) directly to the skin. Some people have reported pain and burning when applying crofelemer (SP-303) to the skin. There is not enough information available to know if sangre de grado itself is safe to take for medical conditions.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There is not enough reliable information about the safety of taking sangre de grado if you are pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
A type of blood cancer called leukemia: Sangre de grado might make this condition worse. Avoid using sangre de grado if you have leukemia.
We currently have no information for SANGRE DE GRADO Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For AIDS-related diarrhea: 125 mg of crofelemer (SP-303), a chemical isolated from sangre de grado, has been taken twice daily. This same chemical in a dose of 500 mg every 6 hours for 4 days has also been used.
- For traveler's diarrhea: 125-500 mg of crofelemer (SP-303), a chemical isolated from sangre de grado, four times daily for 2 days has been used.
- For herpes (genital and anal): Applying a specific sangre de grado ointment containing 15% crofelemer (SP-303) to herpes lesions three times daily for 21 days has been used.
- De, Marino S., Gala, F., Zollo, F., Vitalini, S., Fico, G., Visioli, F., and Iorizzi, M. Identification of minor secondary metabolites from the latex of Croton lechleri (Muell-Arg) and evaluation of their antioxidant activity. Molecules. 2008;13(6):1219-1229. View abstract.
- Desmarchelier, C. J. and de Moraes Barros, S. B. Pharmacological activity of South American plants: effects on spontaneous in vivo lipid peroxidation. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(1):80-82. View abstract.
- DiCesare, D., DuPont, H. L., Mathewson, J. J., Ashley, D., Martinez-Sandoval, F., Pennington, J. E., and Porter, S. B. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of SP-303 (Provir) in the symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea among travelers to Jamaica and Mexico. Am.J.Gastroenterol. 2002;97(10):2585-2588. View abstract.
- Froldi, G., Zagotto, G., Filippini, R., Montopoli, M., Dorigo, P., and Caparrotta, L. Activity of sap from Croton lechleri on rat vascular and gastric smooth muscles. Phytomedicine. 2009;16(8):768-775. View abstract.
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- Miller, M. J., MacNaughton, W. K., Zhang, X. J., Thompson, J. H., Charbonnet, R. M., Bobrowski, P., Lao, J., Trentacosti, A. M., and Sandoval, M. Treatment of gastric ulcers and diarrhea with the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado. Am.J.Physiol Gastrointest.Liver Physiol 2000;279(1):G192-G200. View abstract.
- Miller, M. J., Vergnolle, N., McKnight, W., Musah, R. A., Davison, C. A., Trentacosti, A. M., Thompson, J. H., Sandoval, M., and Wallace, J. L. Inhibition of neurogenic inflammation by the Amazonian herbal medicine sangre de grado. J.Invest Dermatol. 2001;117(3):725-730. View abstract.
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- Risco, E., Ghia, F., Vila, R., Iglesias, J., Alvarez, E., and Canigueral, S. Immunomodulatory activity and chemical characterisation of sangre de drago (dragon's blood) from Croton lechleri. Planta Med. 2003;69(9):785-794. View abstract.
- Rossi, D., Bruni, R., Bianchi, N., Chiarabelli, C., Gambari, R., Medici, A., Lista, A., and Paganetto, G. Evaluation of the mutagenic, antimutagenic and antiproliferative potential of Croton lechleri (Muell. Arg.) latex. Phytomedicine. 2003;10(2-3):139-144. View abstract.
- Sandoval, M., Okuhama, N. N., Clark, M., Angeles, F. M., Lao, J., Bustamante, S., and Miller, M. J. Sangre de grado Croton palanostigma induces apoptosis in human gastrointestinal cancer cells. J.Ethnopharmacol. 2002;80(2-3):121-129. View abstract.
- Tradtrantip, L., Namkung, W., and Verkman, A. S. Crofelemer, an antisecretory antidiarrheal proanthocyanidin oligomer extracted from Croton lechleri, targets two distinct intestinal chloride channels. Mol.Pharmacol. 2010;77(1):69-78. View abstract.
- Tran, C. D., Butler, R. N., and Miller, M. J. The role of Amazonian herbal medicine Sangre de Grado in Helicobacter pylori infection and its association with metallothionein expression. Helicobacter. 2006;11(2):134-135. View abstract.
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- Dicesare D, Dupont HL, Mathewson JJ, et al. A double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study of SP-303 (Provir) in the symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea among travelers to Mexico and Jamaica. Infectious Diseases Society of America Annual Meeting, 1998 (abstract).
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- Gilbert BE, Wyde PR, Wilson SZ, Meyerson LR. SP-303 small-particle aerosol treatment of influenza A virus infection in mice and respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats. Antiviral Res 1993;21:37-45. View abstract.
- Holodniy M, Koch J, Mistal M, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase II study to assess the safety and efficacy of orally administered SP-303 for the symptomatic treatment of diarrhea in patients with AIDS. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94:3267-73. View abstract.
- MacArthur RD, Hawkins T, Brown SJ, et al. Efficacy and safety of crofelemer for noninfectious diarrhea in HIV-seropositive individuals (ADVENT trial): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-stage study. HIV Clin Trials 2013;14(6):261-73. View abstract.
- Mangel AW, Chaturvedi P. Evaluation of crofelemer in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome patients. Digestion 2008;78(4):180-6. View abstract.
- Miller MJ, Vergnolle N, Wallace JL, et al. Sangre de grado is a potent and unique inhibitor of neurogenic inflammation and promotes healing in experimental necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatric Academic Soc and Acad Pediatrics Joint Mtg, May 12-6 2000:Abstract 979.
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- Pieters L, de Bruyne T, Claeys M, et al. Isolation of a dihydrobenzofuran lignan from South American dragon's blood (Croton spp.) as an inhibitor of cell proliferation. J Nat Prod 1993;56:899-906. View abstract.
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- Safrin S, McKinley G, McKeough M, et al. Treatment of acyclovir-unresponsive cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection with topically applied SP-303. Antiviral Res 1994;25:185-92. View abstract.
- Sidwell RW, Huffman JH, Moscon BJ, Warren RP. Influenza virus-inhibitory effects of intraperitoneally and aerosol-administered SP-303, a plant flavonoid. Chemotherapy 1994;40:42-50. View abstract.
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- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN). Taxon: Croton lechleri mull. Arg website: www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?croton+lechleri (Accessed 31 January 2000).
- Vaisberg AJ, Milla M, Planas MC, et al. Taspine is the cicatrizant principle in Sangre de Grado extracted from Croton lechleri. Planta Med 1989;55:140-3. View abstract.
- Wyde PR, Ambrose MW, Meyerson LR, Gilbert BE. The antiviral activity of SP-303, a natural polyphenolic polymer, against respiratory syncytial and parainfluenza type 3 viruses in cotton rats. Antiviral Res 1993;20:145-54. View abstract.
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