Acidophilus, Acidophilus Bifidus, Acidophilus Lactobacillus, L. Acidophilus, L. Amylovorus, L. Brevis, L. Bulgaricus, L. Casei Immunitas, L. Casei, L. Crispatus, L. Delbrueckii, L. Fermentum, L. Gallinarum, L. Helveticus, L. Johnsonii, L. Johnsonii LC-1, L. Lactis, L. Plantarum, L. Reuteri, L. Rhamnosus, L. Salivarius, L. Sporogenes, Lacto Bacillus, Lactobacille, Lactobacilli, Lactobacilli Acidophilus, Lactobacilli Bulgaricus, Lactobacilli Plantarum, Lactobacilli Rhamnosus, Lactobacilli Salivarium, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus amylovorus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus casei sp. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus gallinarum, Lactobacillus Gasseri, Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus Helveticus, Lactobacillus johnsonii, Lactobacillus Lactis, Lactobacillus Paracasei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus Rhamnosus GG, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus Salivarium, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus sporogenes, Lactobacilo, Lactospores, LC-1, Probiotics, Probiotiques.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationLactobacillus is a type of bacteria. There are lots of different species of lactobacillus. These are "friendly" bacteria that normally live in our digestive, urinary, and genital systems without causing disease. Lactobacillus is also in some fermented foods like yogurt and in dietary supplements.
Lactobacillus is used for treating and preventing diarrhea, including infectious types such as rotaviral diarrhea in children and traveler's diarrhea. It is also used to prevent and treat diarrhea associated with using antibiotics.
Some people use lactobacillus for general digestion problems; irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); colic in babies; Crohn's disease; inflammation of the colon; and a serious gut problem called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in babies born prematurely. Lactobacillus is also used for infection with Helicobacter pylori, the type of bacteria that causes ulcers, and also for other types of infections including urinary tract infections (UTIs), vaginal yeast infections, to prevent the common cold in adults, and to prevent respiratory infections in children attending daycare centers. It is also being tested to prevent serious infections in people on ventilators.
Lactobacillus is used for skin disorders such as fever blisters, canker sores, eczema (allergic dermatitis); and acne.
It is also used for high cholesterol, lactose intolerance, Lyme disease, hives, and to boost the immune system.
Women sometimes use lactobacillus suppositories to treat vaginal infections and urinary tract infections (UTIs).
There are concerns about the quality of some lactobacillus products. Some products labeled to contain Lactobacillus acidophilus actually contain no lactobacillus acidophilus, or they contain a different strain of lactobacillus such as Lactobacillus bulgaricus. Some products are contaminated with “unfriendly” bacteria.
How does it work?Many bacteria and other organisms live in our bodies normally. "Friendly" bacteria such as lactobacillus can help us break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "unfriendly" organisms that might cause diseases such as diarrhea.
Uses & Effectiveness
Likely Effective for
- Diarrhea in children caused by a certain virus (rotavirus). Children with rotaviral diarrhea who are being treated with lactobacillus seem to get over their diarrhea up to 3 days earlier than they would without this treatment. Larger doses of lactobacillus are more effective than smaller ones. At least 10 billion colony-forming units during the first 48 hours should be used.
Possibly Effective for
- Hayfever. Taking 2 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus daily for 5 weeks can improve quality of life by almost 18% in people with grass pollen allergy that doesn't respond to the anti-allergy drug loratadine. In children with allergies that persist throughout the year, taking 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus for 12 weeks seems to improve itchy eye symptoms.
- Preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics. Taking probiotics products containing lactobacillus strains helps prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotics in adults and children. The most well-studied strain of lactobacillus seems to reduce the chance of diarrhea by about 60% to 70% when started within 2 days of beginning antibiotic treatment and continued for at least 3 days after finishing the antibiotics.
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Most research shows that taking lactobacillus products can reduce eczema symptoms in infants and children. Research also shows that lactobacillus can help PREVENT eczema from developing. When taken by a mother during the last month of pregnancy and then given to the child for the first 1-2 years of life, lactobacillus probiotics can reduce the chance of the child developing eczema by about 11%.
- A condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease). Research shows that taking certain lactobacillus strains can prevent atopic disease, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema, in infants with a family history of this condition. However, not all strains seem to work.
- Treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis). Researchers have found that lactobacillus suppositories and vaginal tablets may be effective in treating bacterial vaginosis. Researchers have also found that eating yogurt or using vaginal capsules containing lactobacillus can help prevent these infections from occurring again.
- Preventing diarrhea due to cancer treatment (chemotherapy). A chemotherapy drug called 5-fluorouracil can cause severe diarrhea and other gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. There is some evidence that patients with cancer of the colon or rectum have less severe diarrhea, less stomach discomfort, shorter hospital care, and require fewer chemotherapy dose reductions due to GI side effects when they take lactobacillus.
- Constipation. Taking lactobacillus probiotics for 4-8 weeks can reduce symptoms of constipation including stomach pain and discomfort, bloating, and incomplete bowel movements. It might also increase the number of bowel movements in some people.
- Diarrhea. Giving lactobacillus to infants and children 1-36 months old when they are admitted to the hospital seems to reduce the risk developing diarrhea. Also, lactobacillus can reduce the risk of diarrhea from all causes in undernourished children. There is conflicting evidence about whether lactobacillus can shorten the duration of diarrhea in children.
- Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection. Research shows that taking lactobacillus probiotics along with "triple therapy" that consists of the prescription drugs clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton-pump inhibitor helps treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori. About 7-11 patients with H. pylori infections need to be treated with lactobacillus plus "triple therapy" for one additional patient to achieve remission compared to what would be achieved with "triple therapy" alone. But taking lactobacillus probiotics does not help treat the infection when taken alone, with only an antibiotic, with other "triple therapies," or with "quadruple therapy" that includes bismuth.
- High cholesterol. Taking lactobacillus probiotics can lower total cholesterol by about 10 mg/dL and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol by about 9 mg/dL in people with or without high cholesterol. The most well-studied strains of lactobacillus for this use are Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus acidophilus. However, lactobacillus probiotics do not seem to improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol or triglycerides.
- Colic in babies. Some research shows that giving lactobacillus to nursing infants reduces daily crying time. Some research suggests that lactobacillus is more effective at reducing crying time than using the drug simethicone. But one large study shows that lactobacillus does not reduce crying. It's possible that infants in the large study had more severe colic than those in the earlier research.
- Inflamed mouth sores from cancer treatment (oral mucositis). Research shows that taking lozenges containing lactobacillus from the first day of radiation/chemotherapy treatment until one week after reduces the number of patients who develop severe mouth sores.
- Inflammation of an artificial rectum surgically created in people with inflammatory bowel disease (pouchitis). Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to help treat pouchitis, a complication of surgery for ulcerative colitis. Taking a multi-species probiotic containing lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and streptococcus for one year seems to maintain remission in 85% of people with this condition. Taking a different formulation containing two lactobacillus species and bifidobacterium for 9 months seems to reduce pouchitis severity.
- Airway infections. Some research shows that lactobacillus probiotics can help prevent airway infections in infants and children. Giving one strains of lactobacillus to infants and children seems to reduce the chance of upper airway infections by about 38%. Also, children ages 1-6 years who attend daycare centers seem to get fewer and less severe airway infections when given milk containing this lactobacillus strain or when given a specific combination of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Research shows that taking lactobacillus for 8 weeks reduces tender and swollen joints in women with rheumatoid arthritis.
- Preventing diarrhea due to traveling. Traveler's diarrhea is caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that the traveler has not been exposed to before. Taking lactobacillus seems to help prevent diarrhea in travelers. The effectiveness can vary a lot depending on the travel destination because of differences in bacteria in different locations.
- Treating a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis. Lactobacillus probiotics seem to increase remission in people with ulcerative colitis. The best evidence of benefit is for a multi-species probiotic containing lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and streptococcus. Research shows that taking this product can increase remission rates by almost 2-fold when used with standard ulcerative colitis treatment. Taking a single strain of lactobacillus also seems to improve symptoms. But lactobacillus doesn't seem to prevent ulcerative colitis relapse.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Diarrhea caused by the bacterium Clostridium difficile. People who are treated for Clostridium difficile infections often experience recurrence. Although some conflicting results exist, most research shows that taking lactobacillus does not prevent recurrent episodes of Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Most research also shows that lactobacillus probiotics do not prevent first episodes of Clostridium difficile diarrhea.
- Crohn's disease. Taking lactobacillus probiotics does not prevent Crohn's disease from becoming active again in people who are in remission or in those who have just had surgery for Crohn's disease.
- Dental plaque. Giving lactobacillus to pregnant women starting 4 weeks before delivery until birth, and then continuing in the infants until 12 months of age, does not seem to reduce dental plaque in the baby teeth of the child by the age of 9 years.
- Vaginal yeast infections after taking antibiotics. Taking lactobacillus by mouth or eating yogurt enriched with lactobacillus doesn't prevent vaginal yeast infections after antibiotics. However, women with yeast infections who use vaginal suppositories containing 1 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus twice daily for 7 days in combination with conventional treatment often report their symptoms improve.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Acne. Early research shows that taking a multi-species probiotic containing lactobacillus and bifidobacterium twice daily along with minocycline once daily for 12 weeks improves acne.
- Common cold. Early research shows that taking lactobacillus daily for 12 weeks reduces the risk of common cold by about 12% and reduces the number of days with symptoms from 8.6 to 6.2 in adults. Also, taking lactobacillus plus bifidobacterium for 3 months seems to reduce school absences due to cold symptoms. However, research is inconsistent. Taking some lactobacillus strains does not seem to reduce the risk of catching a cold or the number of cold/flu days.
- Cystic fibrosis. Research suggests that taking lactobacillus daily for 6 months reduces the percentage of cystic fibrosis patients with lung complications from 37% to 3% and the percentage with upper respiratory tract infections from 20% to 3%.
- Dental cavities. Research on the effects of lactobacillus on dental cavities is mixed. Giving lactobacillus to pregnant women starting 4 weeks before delivery until birth, and then continuing in the infants until 12 months of age, seems to reduce cavities in the child's baby teeth. But giving lactobacillus to only infants from 4 months until 13 months of age does not reduce cavities in baby or permanent teeth.
- Stomach pain. Early research suggests that taking lactobacillus twice daily for 4 weeks can reduce the severity but not frequency of stomach pain in children 6 to 16 years-old. Other early research shows that taking lactobacillus and bifidobacterium twice daily for 30 days improves stomach pain.
- Flu. Taking a drink containing one strain of lactobacillus 5 days weekly for 8 weeks reduces the incidence of the flu in schoolchildren during flu season. Taking a different lactobacillus strain daily for 6 weeks does not reduce the number of cold/flu days in otherwise healthy adults.
- Treating irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Many studies have evaluated lactobacillus species for treating IBS. Some strains might reduce IBS symptoms including abdominal pain, bloating, and flatulence in some people. But other lactobacillus strains don't seem to work in most people with IBS.
- Lactose intolerance. Research on the effects of lactobacillus on lactose intolerance is conflicting. Some research shows that drinking lactobacillus milk produces the same symptoms of intolerance as regular cow's milk in people with lactose intolerance. But other research shows that drinking a milk product containing lactobacillus reduces symptoms of lactose intolerance.
- Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in babies born prematurely. When results from multiple clinical studies are evaluated, giving lactobacillus to preterm infants seems to reduce the risk of severe NEC by 30% to 55%. But when results from individual clinical studies are considered, lactobacillus does not seem to prevent NEC. It's possible that the individual clinical studies are too small to show benefit. Giving lactobacillus to preterm infants does not reduce the risk of death.
- Skin rash caused by sun exposure (polymorphous light eruption). Early research shows that taking a supplement containing lactobacillus and other ingredients daily for 12 weeks reduces the severity of skin reactions after sun exposure in people with polymorphous light eruption.
- Growth of bacteria in the intestines. Some clinical research has evaluated lactobacillus for treating and preventing growth of potentially harmful bacteria in the intestines. Some of this research shows modest improvements in symptoms of stomach pain, bloating, and diarrhea; however, other research has found no benefit in people with bacterial overgrowth. Lactobacillus does not seem to be helpful for preventing growth of harmful bacteria in the intestines.
- Urinary tract infections (UTIs). There is some early evidence that vaginal use of some lactobacillus species might be helpful for preventing UTIs, but not all studies have agreed. There is also conflicting evidence about the effects of taking lactobacillus by mouth.
- Pneumonia in people on breathing machines in the hospital. Early research shows that taking lactobacillus twice daily might reduce the incidence of pneumonia in people in the intensive care unit.
- Weight loss. Research shows that taking lactobacillus twice daily for 24 weeks does not reduce body weight or fat mass in obese adults. However, it might reduce body weight in just women.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Canker sores.
- Fever blisters.
- Lyme disease.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyLactobacillus is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately. Side effects are usually mild and most often include intestinal gas or bloating.
Lactobacillus is also LIKELY SAFE for women to use inside the vagina.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Children: Lactobacillus is LIKELY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately in children. Lactobacillus GG, a specific strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, has been used safely from five days to 15 months.
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Lactobacillus is POSSIBLY SAFE when taken by mouth appropriately while pregnant and breastfeeding. Lactobacillus GG has been used safely in pregnant and breast-feeding women. The combinations of Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus paracasei with Bifidobacterium longum from 2 months before delivery until the breastfed infant was 2 months has been used safely. But other types of lactobacillus have not been studied during pregnancy and breast-feeding, so their safety is unknown.
Weakened immune system: There is some concern that lactobacillus from supplements that contain live bacteria might grow too well in people whose immune systems are weakened. This includes people with HIV/AIDS or people who have taken medicines to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ. Lactobacillus has caused disease (rarely) in people with weakened immune systems. To be on the safe side, if you have a weakened immune system, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Short bowel syndrome: People with short bowel syndrome might be more likely than other people to develop lactobacillus infections. If you have this condition, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Ulcerative colitis: People with ulcerative colitis that is severe enough to require hospitalization might be more likely than other people to develop lactobacillus infections. If you have this condition, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Damaged heart valves: Lactobacillus can cause an infection in the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valve, but this is extremely rare. However, people with damaged heart valves might be more likely than other people to develop this type of infection, especially if they take lactobacillus before dental or invasive stomach and intestinal procedures. People with damaged heart valves should stop taking probiotics before dental procedures or invasive stomach and intestinal procedures such as an endoscopy.
Be cautious with this combination
Antibiotic drugs interacts with LACTOBACILLUS
Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Antibiotics can also reduce friendly bacteria in the body. Lactobacillus is a type of friendly bacteria. Taking antibiotics along with lactobacillus can reduce the effectiveness of lactobacillus. To avoid this interaction take lactobacillus products at least 2 hours before or after antibiotics.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with LACTOBACILLUS
Lactobacillus contains live bacteria and yeast. The immune system usually controls bacteria and yeast in the body to prevent infections. Medications that decrease the immune system can increase your chances of getting sick from bacteria and yeast. Taking lactobacillus along with medications that decrease the immune system might increase the chances of getting sick.<br /><br /> Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
The strength of Lactobacillus products is usually indicated by the number of living organisms per capsule. Typical doses range from 1 to 10 billion living organisms taken daily in 3-4 divided doses.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For hayfever: At least 2 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus daily for 7 weeks has been used along with 10 mg of loratadine once daily for 5 weeks.
- For preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics: Many different lactobacillus species have been studied. In most cases, lactobacillus is given in daily doses that provide 10-100 billion colony-forming units daily. Lower doses of 100 million colony-forming units have also been used. Usually treatment is started within 2 days of beginning antibiotic treatment and continued for at least 3 days after antibiotic treatment is complete.
- For eczema (atopic dermatitis): For preventing eczema in children, lactobacillus has been given to pregnant women during the last month of pregnancy. Typically, lactobacillus is given alone or along with other probiotic species in doses of 100 million to 10 billion colony-forming units. Doses vary depending on the lactobacillus strain and if the product is a multi-species probiotic.
- For a condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease): 10-20 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily for 2-4 weeks before delivery.
- For treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria (bacterial vaginosis): 150 mL of yogurt containing lactobacillus has been used daily for 2 months.
- For preventing diarrhea due to cancer treatment (chemotherapy): 5-10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been used twice daily during 24 weeks of chemotherapy.
- For constipation: 200-400 million colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been taken daily for 4-8 weeks. Also, a multi-species probiotic product containing 5 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus and other probiotic species has been used twice daily for 7 days.
- For Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection: Probiotic products containing 200 million to 15 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus daily have been used along with triple therapy. Also, a multi-strain probiotic containing 30 million colony-forming units of lactobacillus and other probiotic species has been used for 2 weeks before until 2 weeks after triple therapy. In all cases, triple therapy consisted of the prescription drugs clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton-pump inhibitor.
- For high cholesterol: Probiotic products containing 39 million to 50 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used for 6-12 weeks.
- For inflamed mouth sores from cancer treatment (oral mucositis): Lozenges containing 2 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been dissolved in the mouth every 2-3 hours up to 6 times daily during chemotherapy and continuing until one week after.
- Inflammation of an artificial rectum surgically created in people with inflammatory bowel disease (pouchitis): A combination probiotic containing 900-1500 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and streptococcus has been taken twice daily for up to one year. Another multi-species probiotic containing about 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium has been taken daily for 9 months.
- For rheumatoid arthritis: 100 million colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily for 8 weeks.
- For traveler's diarrhea: 2 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been used daily, starting 2 days before traveling and continuing until the end of the trip.
- For a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis: A product containing 25 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been taken twice daily for 8 weeks. Also, a combination probiotic containing 900-1500 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and streptococcus has been taken once or twice daily.
- For treating vaginal infections caused by bacteria: One to two vaginal tablets containing 10 million colon-forming units of lactobacillus per tablet have been taken daily along with 0.3 mg estriol for 6 days. Intravaginal suppositories containing 100 million to 1 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus, given twice daily for 6 days, has also been used.
- For rotaviral diarrhea: Doses of at least 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus daily during the first 48 hours seem to work best.
- For hayfever: 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been taken once daily for 12 weeks along with 5 mg of levocetirizine in children 7-12 years-old.
- For preventing diarrhea caused by antibiotics: 10-20 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been taken once daily; 20 billion colony-forming units twice daily has also been used.
- For eczema (atopic dermatitis): For treating eczema in children, 10-100 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been taken daily for 6-12 weeks. For preventing eczema, 100 million to 6 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus daily from birth until 1-2 years has been used. Also a multi-species probiotic containing 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has been used daily from birth until 6 months.
- For a condition associated with an increased risk for developing allergic reactions (atopic disease): 10-20 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily for the first 3-6 months of life.
- For constipation: 100 million colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily for 8 weeks.
- For diarrhea: Six billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been used twice daily in infants while hospitalized. Also, 37 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been used daily, 6 days weekly, for 15 months in children 6-24 months-old.
- For Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection: A multi-species probiotic containing about 100 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium has been used for 2 weeks along with triple therapy and for 4 weeks after triple therapy was complete. Triple therapy consisted of the prescription drugs clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and a proton-pump inhibitor.
- For colic in babies: 100 million colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily for up to 90 days in breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Also, a specific multi-ingredient product containing 65 mg of lemon balm, 9 mg of German chamomile, and 1 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus (ColiMil Plus by Milte Italia SPA ) has been used twice daily for 4 weeks.
- For airway infections: Milk products containing 130 million to 10 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus have been used daily.
- For traveler's diarrhea: 2 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus has been used daily, starting 2 days before traveling and continuing until the end of the trip.
- For a bowel condition called ulcerative colitis: A combination probiotic containing 450-1800 billion colony-forming units of lactobacillus, bifidobacterium, and streptococcus has been used daily in children with moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis.
- Aaron JG, Sobieszczyk ME, Weiner SD, Whittier S, Lowy FD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis after upper endoscopy. Open Forum Infect Dis 2017;4(2):ofx085. View abstract.
- Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B, Oldaeus G, Jenmalm MC. No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013;24(6):556-61. View abstract.
- Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, et al. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1174-80.. View abstract.
- Alak JI, Wolf BW, Mdurvwa EG, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on intestinal resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a murine model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 1997;175:218-21. View abstract.
- Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R, et al. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:351-4. View abstract.
- AlFaleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD005496. View abstract.
- Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L,Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J. Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2014;17(5):519-27. View abstract.
- Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, Thornton CA, Gravenor MB, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Wang D, Morgan G. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2014;99(11):1014-9. View abstract.
- Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2013 Oct 12;382(9900):1249-57. View abstract.
- Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Sewell B, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D, Phillips CJ. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE). Health Technol Assess 2013;17(57):1-140. View abstract.
- Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 1999;104:e64. View abstract.
- Baerheim A, Larsen E, Digranes A. Vaginal application of lactobacilli in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in women. Scand J Prim Health Care 1994;12:239-43. View abstract.
- Barrett JS, Canale KE, Gearry RB, et al. Probiotic effects on intestinal fermentation patterns in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 28;14(32):5020-4. View abstract.
- Barth A, Hovhannisyan A, Jamalyan K, Narimanyan M. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2015;22(13):1195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.10.001. View abstract.
- Beausoleil, M., Fortier, N., Guenette, S., L'ecuyer, A., Savoie, M., Franco, M., Lachaine, J., and Weiss, K. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Gastroenterol 2007;21(11):732-736. View abstract.
- Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM,Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE. Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(9):704-12. View abstract.
- Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48(10):1127-35. View abstract.
- Berggren A, Lazou Ahrén I, Larsson N, Onning G. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 2011;50:203-10. View abstract.
- Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al. VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46. View abstract.
- Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21:224-6. View abstract.
- Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017;6(4). View abstract.
- Bradshaw CS, Pirotta M, De Guingand D, Hocking JS, Morton AN, Garland SM,Fehler G, Morrow A, Walker S, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. PLoS One 2012;7(4):e34540. View abstract.
- Bruce AW, Reid G. Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 1988;34:339-43. View abstract.
- Cadieux P, Burton J, Gardiner G, et al. Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology. JAMA 2002;287:1940-1. View abstract.
- Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al. A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1625-9. View abstract.
- Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ. Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2000;12:247-85.
- Chan RCY, Reid G, Irvin RT, et al. Competitive exclusion of uropathogens from human uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments. Infect Immun 1985;47:84-9. View abstract.
- Chandra RK. Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Res 2001;22:65-9.
- Chang HY, Chen JH, Chang JH, Lin HC, Lin CY, Peng CC. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171579. View abstract.
- Chatterjee S, Kar P, Das T, Ray S, Gangulyt S, Rajendiran C, Mitra M. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61(10):708-12. View abstract.
- Chau K, Lau E, Greenberg S, Jacobson S, Yazdani-Brojeni P, Verma N, Koren G.Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. J Pediatr 2015;166(1):74-8. View abstract.
- Choi CH, Chang SK. Role of Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth in Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders. J Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2016 31;22(1):3-5. View abstract.
- Cimperman L, Bayless G, Best K, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011;45(9):785-9. View abstract.
- Coccorullo P, Strisciuglio C, Martinelli M, Miele E, Greco L, Staiano A. Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) in infants with functional chronic constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Pediatr. 2010;157(4):598-602. View abstract.
- Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al.; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(5):431-55. View abstract.
- Costa DJ, Marteau P, Amouyal M, Poulsen LK, Hamelmann E, Cazaubiel M, Housez B, Leuillet S, Stavnsbjerg M, Molimard P, Courau S, Bousquet J. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 in allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (GA2LEN Study). Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68(5):602-7. View abstract.
- Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2744-9. View abstract.
- D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ 2002;324:1361. View abstract.
- Darouiche RO, Hull RA. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview. J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:136-41. View abstract.
- De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278-80. View abstract.
- de Roos NM, Katan MB. Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:405-11. View abstract.
- Deguchi R, Nakaminami H, Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Koike J, Igarashi M, Ozawa H, Fukuda R, Takagi A. Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;27(5):888-92. View abstract.
- Di Nardo G, Oliva S, Menichella A, Pistelli R, De Biase RV, Patriarchi F,Cucchiara S, Stronati L. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58(1):81-6. View abstract.
- Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1075-84. View abstract.
- Dinleyici EC; PROBAGE Study Group, Vandenplas Y. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 effectively reduces the duration of acute diarrhoea in hospitalised children. Acta Paediatr 2014;103(7):e300-5. View abstract.
- Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood--a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 2012;107(1):1-6. View abstract.
- Doncheva NI, Antov GP, Softove EB, Nyagolov YP. Experimental and clinical study on the hypolipidemic and antisclerotic effect of Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain GB N 1 (48). Nutr Res 2002;22:393-403.
- Du YQ, Su T, Fan JG, Lu YX, Zheng P, Li XH, Guo CY, Xu P, Gong YF, Li ZS. Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6302-7. View abstract.
- Ducrotté P, Sawant P, Jayanthi V. Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(30):4012-8. View abstract.
- Efrati C, Nicolini G, Cannaviello C, O'Sed NP, Valabrega S. Helicobacter pylori eradication: sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6250-4. View abstract.
- El-Nezami H, Kankaanpaa P, Salminen S, et al. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321-6. View abstract.
- Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics 2013;132(3):e666-76. View abstract.
- Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Blanco Rivero JL, et al. Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:25–9. View abstract.
- Fernández-Carrocera LA, Solis-Herrera A, Cabanillas-Ayón M, Gallardo-Sarmiento RB, García-Pérez CS, Montaño-Rodríguez R, Echániz-Aviles MO. Double-blind,randomised clinical assay to evaluate the efficacy of probiotics in preterm newborns weighing less than 1500 g in the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2013;98(1):F5-9. View abstract.
- Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
- Francavilla R, Polimeno L, Demichina A, Maurogiovanni G, Principi B, Scaccianoce G, Ierardi E, Russo F, Riezzo G, Di Leo A, Cavallo L, Francavilla A, Versalovic J. Lactobacillus reuteri strain combination in Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Gastroenterol 2014;48(5):407-13. View abstract.
- Franko B, Vaillant M, Recule C, Vautrin E, Brion JP, Pavese P. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics. Med Mal Infect 2013;43(4):171-3. View abstract.
- Friend BA, Shahani KM. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. J Appl Nut 1984;36:125-153.
- Fuentes MC, Lajo T, Carrión JM, Cuñé J. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529 in hypercholesterolaemic adults Br J Nutr 2013;109(10):1866-72. View abstract.
- Fujisawa T, Benno Y, Yaeshima T, Mitsuoka T. Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 (Johnson et al. 1980) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus (Nakamura 1981). Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992;42:487-91. View abstract.
- Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, et al. Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL 1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105;1636-41. View abstract.
- Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina (B Aires). 2002;62(2):159-63. View abstract.
- Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ. Probiotic supplementation to enhance natural immunity in the elderly: effects of a newly characterized immunostimulatory strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) on leucocyte phagocytosis. Nutr Res 2001;21:183-9.
- Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9. View abstract.
- Goldenberg JZ, Ma SS, Saxton JD, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD006095. View abstract.
- Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, Moore RP. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr Cancer 1996;25:197-204. View abstract.
- Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7. View abstract.
- Gorbach SL. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S2-S4. View abstract.
- Gore C, Custovic A, Tannock GW, Munro K, Kerry G, Johnson K, Peterson C, Morris J, Chaloner C, Murray CS, Woodcock A. Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema: randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years. Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(1):112-22. View abstract.
- Grin PM, Kowalewska PM, Alhazzan W, Fox-Robichaud AE. Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis. Can J Urol 2013;20(1):6607-14. View abstract.
- Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;30:54. View abstract.
- Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, et al. Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;25:516-9. View abstract.
- Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, et al. Inverse association of H2O2-producing Lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis 1998;178:446-50. View abstract.
- Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19:146-8.. View abstract.
- Halpern GM, Prindiville T, Blankenburg M, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1579-85. View abstract.
- Han Y, Kim B, Ban J, Lee J, Kim BJ, Choi BS, Hwang S, Ahn K, Kim J. A randomized trial of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012;23(7):667-73. View abstract.
- Hasslöf P, West CE, Videhult FK, Brandelius C, Stecksén-Blicks C. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience. Caries Res. 2013;47(6):559-65. View abstract.
- Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001;322:1327. View abstract.
- Hegar B, Hutapea EI, Advani N, Vandenplas Y. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89(4):381-7. View abstract.
- Herthelius M, Gorbach SL, Mollby R, et al. Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51. View abstract.
- Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335:80. View abstract.
- Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventative in Travelers. J Travel Med 1997;4:41-3. View abstract.
- Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg HD. Lactobacillus GG Vaginal Suppositories and Vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:1433. View abstract.
- Hudault S, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard MF, Servin AL. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:513-8. View abstract.
- Indrio F, Di Mauro A, Riezzo G, Civardi E, Intini C, Corvaglia L, Ballardini E, Bisceglia M, Cinquetti M, Brazzoduro E, Del Vecchio A, Tafuri S, Francavilla R. Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(3):228-33. View abstract.
- Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, et al. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991;88:90-7. View abstract.
- Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:444S-450S. View abstract.
- Jaisamrarn U, Triratanachat S, Chaikittisilpa S, Grob P, Prasauskas V, Taechakraichana N. Ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli in the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric. 2013;16(3):347-55. View abstract.
- Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF. Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(6):928-34. View abstract.
- Johnston BC, Ma SSY, Goldenberg JZ, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:878-8. View abstract.
- Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash S. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(10):1505-13. View abstract.
- Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash S. Cholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(11):1234-41. View abstract.
- Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I, Rao J. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(2):114-22. View abstract.
- Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant. J Infect 1996;32:165-7. View abstract.
- Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:1076-1079. View abstract.
- Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, et al. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:1869-71. View abstract.
- Kasravi FB, Adawi D, Molin G, et al. Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on bacterial translocation in acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine. J Hepatol 1997;26:417-24. View abstract.
- Kato K, Funabashi N, Takaoka H, et al. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics with advanced and severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis complicated with diffuse left ventricular mid-layer fibrosis. Int J Cardiol 2016;224:157-61. View abstract.
- Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904. . View abstract.
- Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, et al. Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:408-12. View abstract.
- Klein G, Zill E, Schindler R, et al. Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient; organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1781-3. View abstract.
- Koning CJ, Jonkers DM, Stobberingh EE, et al. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103(1):178-89. View abstract.
- Krag A, Munkholm P, Israelsen H, von Ryberg B, Andersen KK, Bendtsen F. Profermin is efficacious in patients with active ulcerative colitis--a randomized controlled trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19(12):2584-92. View abstract.
- Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis. Gut 2006;55:833-41. View abstract.
- Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, et al. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics 2005;115:178-81. View abstract.
- Langkamp-Henken B, Rowe CC, Ford AL, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Khouri L,Specht GJ, Girard SA, Spaiser SJ, Dahl WJ. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2015 14;113(3):426-34. View abstract.
- Larsson PG, Stray-Pedersen B, Ryttig KR, Larsen S. Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BMC Womens Health 2008;8:3. View abstract.
- Lau CS, Chamberlain RS. Probiotics are effective at preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gen Med. 2016;9:27-37. View abstract.
- Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179. View abstract.
- Lin MY, Yen CL, Chen SH. Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:133-7. View abstract.
- Liu S, Hu P, Du X, Zhou T, Pei X. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation for preventing respiratory infections in children: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(4):377-81. View abstract.
- Losada MA, Olleros T. Towards a healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutr Res 2002;22:71-84.
- Lu L, Walker WA. Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73;1124S-1130S. View abstract.
- Lü M, Yu S, Deng J, et al. Efficacy of probiotic supplementation therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0163743. View abstract.
- Lue KH, Sun HL, Lu KH, Ku MS, Sheu JN, Chan CH, Wang YH. A trial of adding Lactobacillus johnsonii EM1 to levocetirizine for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in children aged 7-12 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(7):994-1001. View abstract.
- Luoto R, Matomäki J, Isolauri E, Lehtonen L. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG. Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1135-8. View abstract.
- Lyra A, Hillilä M, Huttunen T, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity improves equally with probiotic and placebo. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(48):10631-42. View abstract.
- MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002;78:366-7. View abstract.
- Mack DR, Michail S, Shu W, et al. Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am J Physiol 1999;276(4 Pt 1):G941-50. View abstract.
- Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, et al. Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 1999;116:1107-14. View abstract.
- Maggi L, Mastromarino P, Macchia S, et al. Technological and biological evaluation of tablets containing different strains of lactobacilli for vaginal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:389-95. View abstract.
- Magro DO, de Oliveira LM, Bernasconi I, Ruela Mde S, Credidio L, Barcelos IK, Leal RF, Ayrizono Mde L, Fagundes JJ, Teixeira Lde B, Ouwehand AC, Coy CS. Effect of yogurt containing polydextrose, Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM and Bifidobacterium lactis HN019: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study in chronic constipation. Nutr J. 2014 24;13:75. View abstract.
- Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-85. . View abstract.
- Mao Y, Nobaek S, Kasravi B, et al. The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats. Gastroenterology 1996;111:334-44. View abstract.
- Marini A, Jaenicke T, Grether-Beck S, Le Floc'h C, Cheniti A, Piccardi N,Krutmann J. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption by oral administration of a nutritional supplement containing lycopene, ß-carotene, and Lactobacillus johnsonii: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2014;30(4):189-94. View abstract.
- Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial. Gut 2006;55:842-7. View abstract.
- McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:812-22. View abstract.
- McFarland LV. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Antibiotics. 2015;4:160-178.
- McGroarty JA. Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993;6:251-64. View abstract.
- McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Playne MJ. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 1999;35:153-9. View abstract.
- Meini S, Laureano R, Fani L, et al. Breakthrough Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in an adult patient with severe active ulcerative colitis: case report and review of the literature. Infection. 2015;43(6):777-81. View abstract.
- Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E. et al. Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43. View abstract.
- Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004;53:108-14. View abstract.
- Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:1058-64. View abstract.
- Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA. Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Dairy Sci 1997;80:1537-45. View abstract.
- Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 26;13:56. View abstract.
- Newcomer AD, Park HS, O'Brien PC, McGill DB. Response of patients with irritable bowel syndrome and lactase deficiency using unfermented acidophilus milk. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:257-63. View abstract.
- Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:1143-7. View abstract.
- Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(10):1048-51. View abstract.
- Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1231-8.. View abstract.
- O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005;128:541-51. View abstract.
- O'Sullivan MA, O'Morain CA. Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 2000;32:294-301. View abstract.
- Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 1999;134:15-20. View abstract.
- Ojetti V, Ianiro G, Tortora A, et al. The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in adults with chronic functional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2014;23(4):387-91. View abstract.
- Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990;22:53-6.. View abstract.
- Olek A, Woynarowski M, Ahrén IL, et al. Efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the prevention of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in children-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Pediatr 2017;186:82-6. View abstract.
- Oncel MY, Sari FN, Arayici S, Guzoglu N, Erdeve O, Uras N, Oguz SS, Dilmen U. Lactobacillus Reuteri for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99(2):F110-5. View abstract.
- Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34. View abstract.
- Palmfeldt J, Hahn-Hagerdal B. Influence of culture pH on survival of Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to freeze-drying. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;55:235-8. View abstract.
- Parent D, Bossens M, Bayot D, et al. Therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied Lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:68-73. . View abstract.
- Park MS, Kwon B, Ku S, Ji GE4. The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection. Nutrients. 2017;9(8). pii: E887. View abstract.
- Parma M, Dindelli M, Caputo L, Redaelli A, Quaranta L, Candiani M. The role of vaginal Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Normogin®) in preventing Bacterial Vaginosis in women with history of recurrences, undergoing surgical menopause: a prospective pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(10):1399-403. View abstract.
- Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, et al. Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:589-71. View abstract.
- Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al. The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:179-84. View abstract.
- Pelto L, Ioslauri E, Lilius EM, et al. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-9. View abstract.
- Pierce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19.
- Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, et al. Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized, controlled trial. BMJ 2004;329:548. View abstract.
- Pochapin M. The effect of probiotics on Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S11-3. View abstract.
- Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, et al. Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 2002;51:405-9. View abstract.
- Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1355-60. View abstract.
- Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:119-21. View abstract.
- Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al. Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60. View abstract.
- Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, et al. Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:43-7. View abstract.
- Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M. Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections. Clin Ther 1992;14:11-6. View abstract.
- Reid G, Cook RL, Bruce AW. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. J Urol 1987;138:330-5. View abstract.
- Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:437S-443S. View abstract.
- Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren. Pediatr Int. 2012;54(5):682-7. View abstract.
- Riezzo G, Orlando A, D'Attoma B, Linsalata M, Martulli M, Russo F. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation. Benef Microbes. 2017:1-10. View abstract.
- Ringel-Kulka T, Goldsmith JR, Carroll IM, Barros SP, Palsson O, Jobin C, Ringel Y. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects colonic mucosal opioid receptor expression in patients with functional abdominal pain - a randomised clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40(2):200-7. View abstract.
- Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S. View abstract.
- Romano C, Ferrau' V, Cavataio F, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). J Paediatr Child Health 2010 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
- Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:389-95. View abstract.
- Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:411-6. View abstract.
- Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:417-9. View abstract.
- Safdar N, Barigala R, Said A, McKinley L. Feasibility and tolerability of probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized US military veterans. J Clin Pharm Ther 2008;33:663-8. View abstract.
- Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, et al. Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:709-10. View abstract.
- Sampalis J, Psaradellis E, Rampakakis E. Efficacy of Bio K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study. Arch Med Sci 2010;6:56-64. View abstract.
- Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C, Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Doré J, Tremblay A. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr.2014 28;111(8):1507-19. View abstract.
- Savino F, Cordisco L, Tarasco V, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2010;126:e526-33. View abstract.
- Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 2007;119:e124-30. View abstract.
- Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6. View abstract.
- Schultz M, Sartor RB. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S19-21. View abstract.
- Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:2615-20. View abstract.
- Shalev E, Battino S, Weiner E, et al. Ingestion of yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus compared with pasteurized yogurt as prophylaxis for recurrent candidal vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Arch Fam Med 1996;5:593-6. View abstract.
- Sharma A, Rath GK, Chaudhary SP, Thakar A, Mohanti BK, Bahadur S. Lactobacillus brevis CD2 lozenges reduce radiation- and chemotherapy-induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study. Eur J Cancer. 2012;48(6):875-81. View abstract.
- Shavakhi A, Tabesh E, Yaghoutkar A, Hashemi H, Tabesh F, Khodadoostan M,Minakari M, Shavakhi S, Gholamrezaei A. The effects of multistrain probiotic compound on bismuth-containing quadruple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized placebo-controlled triple-blind study. Helicobacter. 2013;18(4):280-4. View abstract.
- Sheih YH, Chiang BL, Wang LH, et al. Systemic immunity-enhancing effects in healthy subjects following dietary consumption of the lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:149-56. View abstract.
- Shen J, Zuo ZX, Mao AP. Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pouchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(1):21-35. View abstract.
- Shen NT, Maw A, Tmanova LL, et al. Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(8):1889-1900. View abstract.
- Shimizu M, Hashiguchi M, Shiga T, Tamura HO, Mochizuki M. Meta-analysis: effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profiles in normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. PLoS One 2015;10(10):e0139795. View abstract.
- Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:399-404. View abstract.
- Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, et al. Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:1103-7. View abstract.
- Simrén M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31(2):218-27. View abstract.
- Sinclair A, Xie X, Saab L, Dendukuri N. Lactobacillus probiotics in the prevention of diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile: a systematic review and Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis. CMAJ Open. 2016;4(4):E706-E718. View abstract.
- Søndergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, Svensson U, Bytzer P, Ekesbo R. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46(6):663-72. View abstract.
- St-Onge MP, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ. Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:674-81. View abstract.
- Stensson M, Koch G, Coric S, Abrahamsson TR, Jenmalm MC, Birkhed D, Wendt LK. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. Caries Res. 2014;48(2):111-7. View abstract.
- Stotzer PO, Blomberg L, Conway PL, Henriksson A, Abrahamsson H. Probiotic treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by Lactobacillus fermentum KLD. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):615-9. View abstract.
- Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11. View abstract.
- Sun J, Buys N. Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Med 2015;47(6):430-40. View abstract.
- Sung V, Hiscock H, Tang ML, Mensah FK, Nation ML, Satzke C, Heine RG, Stock A,Barr RG, Wake M. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. BMJ. 2014 1;348:g2107. View abstract.
- Sutas Y, Hurme M, Isolauri E. Down-regulations of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scand J Immunol 1996;43:687-9. View abstract.
- Szajewska H, Canani RB, Guarino A, et al.; ESPGHAN working group for ProbioticsPrebiotics. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;62(3):495-506. View abstract.
- Szajewska H, Gyrczuk E, Horvath A. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of infantile colic in breastfed infants: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):257-62. View abstract.
- Szajewska H, Kolodziej M. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42(10):1149-57. View abstract.
- Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr 2001;138:361-5. View abstract.
- Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Kolacek S. Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(3):249-55. View abstract.
- Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP 1990;24:382-4. View abstract.
- Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, et al. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:883-9. View abstract.
- Tomasz B, Zoran S, Jaroslaw W, Ryszard M, Marcin G, Robert B, Piotr K, Lukasz K, Jacek P, Piotr G, Przemyslaw P, Michal D. Long-term use of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: a randomized prospective study. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:208064. View abstract.
- Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31. View abstract.
- Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P. Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;41:195-204. View abstract.
- Urbanska M, Gieruszczak-Bialek D, Szajewska H. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for diarrhoeal diseases in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;43(10):1025-34. View abstract.
- Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Sharif SK, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Zavvari S. Probiotic supplementation improves inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition. 2014;30(4):430-5. View abstract.
- Vahabnezhad E, Mochon AB, Wozniak LJ, Ziring DA. Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(5):437-9. View abstract.
- Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2002;109:678-84. View abstract.
- Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 1999;135:564-8. View abstract.
- Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ. Current and potential uses of probiotics. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93:S33-7. View abstract.
- Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62:1958-63. View abstract.
- Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8. View abstract.
- Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-69. View abstract.
- Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, et al. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 1997;65:4165-4172. View abstract.
- Waki N, Matsumoto M, Fukui Y, Suganuma H. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study. Lett Appl Microbiol 2014;59(6):565-71. View abstract.
- Wang YH, Huang Y. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30(3):847-53. View abstract.
- Wei H, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J, et al. Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002;17:9-15. View abstract.
- Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 2002;65:16-20. View abstract.
- Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J. A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42(7):1071-9. View abstract.
- Wildt S, Nordgaard I, Hansen U, Brockmann E, Rumessen JJ. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5(2):115-21. View abstract.
- Wojtyniak K, Horvath A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H. Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in the Management of Functional Constipation in Children: A Randomized Trial. J Pediatr. 2017;184:101-105. View abstract.
- Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA. Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1085-94 . View abstract.
- Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:343-8. View abstract.
- Wu Y, Zhang Q, Ren Y, Ruan Z. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. PLoS One 2017;12(6):e0178868. View abstract.
- Wullt M, Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:365-7. . View abstract.
- Yli-Knuuttila H, Snall J, Kari K, Meurman JH. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31. View abstract.
- Zheng X, Lyu L, Mei Z. Lactobacillus-containing probiotic supplementation increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: evidence from a meta-analysis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2013;105(8):445-53. Review. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased LACTOBACILLUS?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)