"Good" bacteria such as Lactobacillus can help the body break down food, absorb nutrients, and fight off "bad" organisms that might cause diseases. Lactobacillus is sometimes added to fermented foods like yogurt and is also found in dietary supplements.
Lactobacillus is most commonly used for diarrhea, including infectious diarrhea and diarrhea in people taking antibiotics. Some people also use lactobacillus for general digestion problems, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), colic in infants, and many other conditions that involve the stomach and bowel. But there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses. There is also no good evidence to support using lactobacillus for COVID-19.
Uses & Effectiveness ?
Possibly Effective for
- Stomach pain. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to reduce stomach pain in children. It's not clear if it helps adults.
- Hay fever. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to reduce hay fever symptoms in both adults and children. It's not clear if taking it during pregnancy lowers the chances that the child will develop hay fever.
- Diarrhea in people taking antibiotics (antibiotic-associated diarrhea). Taking lactobacillus by mouth, alone or with other probiotics, seems to reduce the risk of diarrhea while taking antibiotics.
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Taking lactobacillus by mouth, alone or with other probiotics, seems to help treat eczema in children. It also seems to help treat and prevent eczema in infants. But it's not clear if taking it during pregnancy lowers the chances that the child will develop eczema.
- Prone to allergies and allergic reactions (atopic disease). Taking a certain lactobacillus strain (L. rhamnosus GG) by mouth during pregnancy or breastfeeding, or giving it to the infant, seems to prevent some allergic reactions, such as asthma, runny nose, and eczema, in infants. But not all strains seem to work.
- Overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. Lactobacillus suppositories and vaginal tablets might help treat this condition. Eating yogurt or using vaginal capsules containing lactobacillus might also help prevent these infections from occurring again.
- Excessive crying in infants (colic). Giving infants a specific lactobacillus strain (L. reuteri) by mouth seems to help with colic. It's not clear if other strains help.
- Constipation. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to reduce constipation.
- Diarrhea. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to help prevent diarrhea in children. But it's not clear if it helps treat diarrhea in children. It's also not clear if taking lactobacillus by mouth reduces the risk of diarrhea in adults.
- A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Taking lactobacillus by mouth along with most standard drug therapies helps treat stomach ulcers caused by H. pylori. But it's not clear if lactobacillus can reduce side effects from these standard drug therapies.
- High cholesterol. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to help lower cholesterol by a small amount.
- Swelling (inflammation) and sores inside the mouth (oral mucositis). Taking lozenges containing lactobacillus from the first day of radiation/chemotherapy treatment until one week after seems to help prevent severe mouth sores.
- Infection of the airways. Taking lactobacillus by mouth, alone or with other probiotics, seems to prevent airway infections in children and most adults. But taking lactobacillus doesn't seem to prevent these infections in older adults.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to improve some symptoms of RA.
- Travelers' diarrhea. Taking lactobacillus by mouth seems to help prevent diarrhea in people traveling to foreign places.
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking lactobacillus by mouth together with standard treatment seem to increase remission in people with ulcerative colitis. But it's not clear if lactobacillus prevents ulcerative colitis relapse.
Possibly Ineffective for
- Infection of the gastrointestinal tract by a bacteria called Clostridium difficile. Taking lactobacillus by mouth does not help to prevent this infection.
- Crohn disease. Taking lactobacillus by mouth does not prevent Crohn disease from becoming active again in people who are in remission.
- Airway infections caused by exercise. Taking lactobacillus by mouth does not reduce the risk of developing an airway infection from exercise.
- Vaginal yeast infections. Taking lactobacillus by mouth or using vaginal suppositories doesn't prevent vaginal yeast infections in adults. It's not clear if using lactobacillus vaginal suppositories helps treat yeast infections.
When applied to the vagina: Lactobacillus is likely safe.
Special Precautions and Warnings
Children: Lactobacillus is likely safe when taken by mouth appropriately in children.
Central lines: Infections of the blood have been reported in people who have central lines and take lactobacillus. If you have a central line, talk with your healthcare provider before taking probiotics.
Liver scarring (cirrhosis): There is some concern that lactobacillus might cause an infection in people with cirrhosis. If you have cirrhosis, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Digestive system problems: People with serious GI disorders, such as short bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), might be more likely to develop lactobacillus infections. If you have any of these conditions, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Weakened immune system: Lactobacillus has caused blood infections in a small number of people with weakened immune systems. This includes people with HIV/AIDS or cancer, or people who are taking medications to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ. If you have a weakened immune system, talk with your healthcare provider before taking lactobacillus.
Damaged heart valves: Lactobacillus can cause an infection in the inner lining of the heart chambers and heart valve. This is extremely rare, but people with damaged heart valves might be more likely to develop this type of infection. People with damaged heart valves should stop taking probiotics before dental procedures or surgical procedures.
Antibiotic drugs interacts with LACTOBACILLUS
Antibiotics are used to reduce harmful bacteria in the body. Antibiotics can also reduce friendly bacteria in the body. Lactobacillus is a type of friendly bacteria. Taking antibiotics along with lactobacillus can reduce the effectiveness of lactobacillus. To avoid this interaction take lactobacillus products at least 2 hours before or after antibiotics.
Medications that decrease the immune system (Immunosuppressants) interacts with LACTOBACILLUS
Lactobacillus contains live bacteria and yeast. The immune system usually controls bacteria and yeast in the body to prevent infections. Medications that decrease the immune system can increase your chances of getting sick from bacteria and yeast. Taking lactobacillus along with medications that decrease the immune system might increase the chances of getting sick.
Some medications that decrease the immune system include azathioprine (Imuran), basiliximab (Simulect), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), daclizumab (Zenapax), muromonab-CD3 (OKT3, Orthoclone OKT3), mycophenolate (CellCept), tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf), sirolimus (Rapamune), prednisone (Deltasone, Orasone), corticosteroids (glucocorticoids), and others.
Be cautious with this combination
In adults, lactobacillus has most often been taken by mouth, alone or together with other probiotics, in doses of 50 million to 100 billion colony-forming units (CFUs) daily, for up to 6 months. In children, lactobacillus has most often been taken by mouth in doses of 100 million to 50 billion CFUs daily, for up to 3 months.
Casas IA, Dobrogosz WJ. Validation of the probiotic concept: Lactobacillus reuteri confers broad-spectrum protection against disease in humans and animals. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease 2000;12:247-85.
Chan RCY, Reid G, Irvin RT, et al. Competitive exclusion of uropathogens from human uroepithelial cells by Lactobacillus whole cells and cell wall fragments. Infect Immun 1985;47:84-9. View abstract.
Chandra RK. Effect of Lactobacillus on the incidence and severity of acute rotavirus diarrhoea in infants. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blind study. Nutr Res 2001;22:65-9.
Chang HY, Chen JH, Chang JH, Lin HC, Lin CY, Peng CC. Multiple strains probiotics appear to be the most effective probiotics in the prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis and mortality: An updated meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0171579. View abstract.
Chatterjee S, Kar P, Das T, Ray S, Gangulyt S, Rajendiran C, Mitra M. Randomised placebo-controlled double blind multicentric trial on efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. J Assoc Physicians India 2013;61(10):708-12. View abstract.
Chau K, Lau E, Greenberg S, Jacobson S, Yazdani-Brojeni P, Verma N, Koren G.Probiotics for infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigating Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938. J Pediatr 2015;166(1):74-8. View abstract.
Cheng B, Zeng X, Liu S, Zou J, Wang Y. The efficacy of probiotics in management of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific reports. 2020;10(1):1-1.
Chi C, Li C, Buys N, Wang W, Yin C, Sun J. Effects of probiotics in preterm infants: A network meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2021;147(1):e20200706. View abstract.
Chong HX, Yusoff NAA, Hor YY, et al. Lactobacillus plantarum DR7 improved upper respiratory tract infections via enhancing immune and inflammatory parameters: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Dairy Sci. 2019;102(6):4783-4797. View abstract.
Cianci A, Cicinelli E, De Leo V, et al. Observational prospective study on Lactobacillus plantarum P 17630 in the prevention of vaginal infections, during and after systemic antibiotic therapy or in women with recurrent vaginal or genitourinary infections. J Obstet Gynaecol. 2018 Jul;38(5):693-696. View abstract.
Cimperman L, Bayless G, Best K, et al. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study of Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC 55730 for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in hospitalized adults. J Clin Gastroenterol 2011;45(9):785-9. View abstract.
Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic administration in patients with major depressive disorder: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition. 2016 Mar;32(3):315-20. View abstract.
Coccorullo P, Strisciuglio C, Martinelli M, Miele E, Greco L, Staiano A. Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) in infants with functional chronic constipation: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Pediatr. 2010;157(4):598-602. View abstract.
Cohen CR, Wierzbicki MR, French AL, et al. Randomized trial of lactin-V to prevent recurrence of bacterial vaginosis. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(20):1906-1915. View abstract.
Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S, et al.; Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America; Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the society for healthcare epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the infectious diseases society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2010;31(5):431-55. View abstract.
Costa DJ, Marteau P, Amouyal M, Poulsen LK, Hamelmann E, Cazaubiel M, Housez B, Leuillet S, Stavnsbjerg M, Molimard P, Courau S, Bousquet J. Efficacy and safety of the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 in allergic rhinitis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (GA2LEN Study). Eur J Clin Nutr 2014;68(5):602-7. View abstract.
Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti-helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol 2002;97:2744-9. View abstract.
Czajeczny D, Kabzińska K, Wójciak RW. Does probiotic supplementation aid weight loss? A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study with Bifidobacterium lactis BS01 and Lactobacillus acidophilus LA02 supplementation. Eat Weight Disord. 2020. View abstract.
D'Souza AL, Rajkumar C, Cooke J, Bulpitt CJ. Probiotics in prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhoea: meta-analysis. BMJ 2002;324:1361. View abstract.
Dall LB, Lausch KR, Gedebjerg A, Fuursted K, Storgaard M, Larsen CS. Do probiotics prevent colonization with multi-resistant Enterobacteriaceae during travel? A randomized controlled trial. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2019;27:81-86. View abstract.
Darouiche RO, Hull RA. Bacterial interference for prevention of urinary tract infection: an overview. J Spinal Cord Med 2000;23:136-41. View abstract.
Davidson SJ, Barrett HL, Price SA, Callaway LK, Dekker Nitert M. Probiotics for preventing gestational diabetes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021;4(4):CD009951. View abstract.
De Groote MA, Frank DN, Dowell E, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a child with short gut syndrome. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2005;24:278-80. View abstract.
de Roos NM, Katan MB. Effects of probiotic bacteria on diarrhea, lipid metabolism, and carcinogenesis: a review of papers published between 1988 and 1998. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:405-11. View abstract.
Deguchi R, Nakaminami H, Rimbara E, Noguchi N, Sasatsu M, Suzuki T, Matsushima M, Koike J, Igarashi M, Ozawa H, Fukuda R, Takagi A. Effect of pretreatment with Lactobacillus gasseri OLL2716 on first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2012;27(5):888-92. View abstract.
Di Nardo G, Oliva S, Menichella A, Pistelli R, De Biase RV, Patriarchi F,Cucchiara S, Stronati L. Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC55730 in cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2014;58(1):81-6. View abstract.
Dickerson F, Adamos M, Katsafanas E, et al. Adjunctive probiotic microorganisms to prevent rehospitalization in patients with acute mania: A randomized controlled trial. Bipolar Disord. 2018 Apr 25. View abstract.
Dimidi E, Christodoulides S, Fragkos KC, Scott SM, Whelan K. The effect of probiotics on functional constipation in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;100(4):1075-84. View abstract.
Dinleyici EC; PROBAGE Study Group, Vandenplas Y. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 effectively reduces the duration of acute diarrhoea in hospitalised children. Acta Paediatr 2014;103(7):e300-5. View abstract.
Doege K, Grajecki D, Zyriax BC, Detinkina E, Zu Eulenburg C, Buhling KJ. Impact of maternal supplementation with probiotics during pregnancy on atopic eczema in childhood--a meta-analysis. Br J Nutr 2012;107(1):1-6. View abstract.
Dolatkhah N, Hajifaraji M, Abbasalizadeh F, Aghamohammadzadeh N, Mehrabi Y, Abbasi MM. Is there a value for probiotic supplements in gestational diabetes mellitus? A randomized clinical trial. J Health Popul Nutr. 2015;33:25. View abstract.
Doncheva NI, Antov GP, Softove EB, Nyagolov YP. Experimental and clinical study on the hypolipidemic and antisclerotic effect of Lactobacillus bulgaricus strain GB N 1 (48). Nutr Res 2002;22:393-403.
Du YQ, Su T, Fan JG, Lu YX, Zheng P, Li XH, Guo CY, Xu P, Gong YF, Li ZS. Adjuvant probiotics improve the eradication effect of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6302-7. View abstract.
Ducrotté P, Sawant P, Jayanthi V. Clinical trial: Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (DSM 9843) improves symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(30):4012-8. View abstract.
Efrati C, Nicolini G, Cannaviello C, O'Sed NP, Valabrega S. Helicobacter pylori eradication: sequential therapy and Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation. World J Gastroenterol 2012;18(43):6250-4. View abstract.
El-Nezami H, Kankaanpaa P, Salminen S, et al. Ability of dairy strains of lactic acid bacteria to bind a common food carcinogen, aflatoxin B1. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:321-6. View abstract.
Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta-analysis of clinical trials. Pediatrics 2013;132(3):e666-76. View abstract.
Evans M, Salewski RP, Christman MC, Girard SA, Tompkins TA. Effectiveness of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus for the management of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2016;116(1):94-103. View abstract.
Famouri F, Shariat Z, Hashemipour M, Keikha M, Kelishadi R. Effects of probiotics on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children and adolescents. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2017;64(3):413-417. View abstract.
Fang HR, Zhang GQ, Cheng JY, Li ZY. Efficacy of Lactobacillus-supplemented triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Eur J Pediatr. 2019;178(1):7-16. View abstract.
Farr A, Sustr V, Kiss H, et al. Oral probiotics to reduce vaginal group B streptococcal colonization in late pregnancy. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):19745. View abstract.
Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Blanco Rivero JL, et al. Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:25–9. View abstract.
Fernández L, Cárdenas N, Arroyo R, et al. Prevention of Infectious Mastitis by Oral Administration of Lactobacillus salivarius PS2 During Late Pregnancy. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(5):568-573. View abstract.
Fetrow CW, Avila JR. Professional's Handbook of Complementary & Alternative Medicines. 1st ed. Springhouse, PA: Springhouse Corp., 1999.
Francavilla R, Polimeno L, Demichina A, Maurogiovanni G, Principi B, Scaccianoce G, Ierardi E, Russo F, Riezzo G, Di Leo A, Cavallo L, Francavilla A, Versalovic J. Lactobacillus reuteri strain combination in Helicobacter pylori infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Clin Gastroenterol 2014;48(5):407-13. View abstract.
Franko B, Vaillant M, Recule C, Vautrin E, Brion JP, Pavese P. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics. Med Mal Infect 2013;43(4):171-3. View abstract.
Freedman SB, Williamson-Urquhart S, Farion KJ, et al. Multicenter Trial of a Combination Probiotic for Children with Gastroenteritis. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2015-2026. View abstract.
Freedman SB, Xie J, Nettel-Aguirre A, et al. A randomized trial evaluating virus-specific effects of a combination probiotic in children with acute gastroenteritis. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):2533. View abstract.
Friend BA, Shahani KM. Nutritional and therapeutic aspects of lactobacilli. J Appl Nut 1984;36:125-153.
Fuentes MC, Lajo T, Carrión JM, Cuñé J. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529 in hypercholesterolaemic adults Br J Nutr 2013;109(10):1866-72. View abstract.
Fujisawa T, Benno Y, Yaeshima T, Mitsuoka T. Taxonomic study of the Lactobacillus acidophilus group, with recognition of Lactobacillus gallinarum sp. nov. and Lactobacillus johnsonii sp. nov. and synonymy of Lactobacillus acidophilus group A3 (Johnson et al. 1980) with the type strain of Lactobacillus amylovorus (Nakamura 1981). Int J Syst Bacteriol 1992;42:487-91. View abstract.
Gao XW, Mubasher M, Fang CY, et al. Dose-response efficacy of a proprietary probiotic formula of Lactobacillus acidophilus CL 1285 and Lactobacillus casei LBC80R for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea prophylaxis in adult patients. Am J Gastroenterol 2010;105;1636-41. View abstract.
Gaon D, Garmendia C, Murrielo NO, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus strains (L. casei and L. Acidophillus Strains cerela) on bacterial overgrowth-related chronic diarrhea. Medicina (B Aires). 2002;62(2):159-63. View abstract.
Gerasimov S, Gantzel J, Dementieva N, et al. Role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (FloraActive) 19070-2 and Lactobacillus reuteri (FloraActive) 12246 in Infant Colic: A Randomized Dietary Study. Nutrients. 2018;10(12). View abstract.
Gerasimov SV, Ivantsiv VA, Bobryk LM, et al. Role of short-term use of L. acidophilus DDS-1 and B. lactis UABLA-12 in acute respiratory infections in children: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr;70(4):463-9. View abstract.
Ghidini M, Nicoletti M, Ratti M, et al. Lactobacillus kefiri LKF01 (Kefibios®) for prevention of diarrhoea in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy: A prospective study. Nutrients. 2021;13(2):385. View abstract.
Gill HS, Rutherfurd KJ. Probiotic supplementation to enhance natural immunity in the elderly: effects of a newly characterized immunostimulatory strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (DR20) on leucocyte phagocytosis. Nutr Res 2001;21:183-9.
Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Venturi A, et al. Oral bacteriotherapy as maintenance treatment in patients with chronic pouchitis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastroenterology 2000;119:305-9. View abstract.
Gleeson M, Bishop NC, Struszczak L. Effects of Lactobacillus casei Shirota ingestion on common cold infection and herpes virus antibodies in endurance athletes: a placebo-controlled, randomized trial. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2016 Aug;116(8):1555-63. View abstract.
Goldenberg JZ, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S, Johnston BC. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;(12):CD004827. View abstract.
Goldenberg JZ, Ma SS, Saxton JD, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(5):CD006095. View abstract.
Goldin BR, Gualtieri LJ, Moore RP. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on the initiation and promotion of DMH-induced intestinal tumors in the rat. Nutr Cancer 1996;25:197-204. View abstract.
Goldin BR. Health Benefits of probiotics. Br J Nutr 1998;80:S203-7. View abstract.
Gorbach SL. Probiotics and gastrointestinal health. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S2-S4. View abstract.
Gore C, Custovic A, Tannock GW, Munro K, Kerry G, Johnson K, Peterson C, Morris J, Chaloner C, Murray CS, Woodcock A. Treatment and secondary prevention effects of the probiotics Lactobacillus paracasei or Bifidobacterium lactis on early infant eczema: randomized controlled trial with follow-up until age 3 years. Clin Exp Allergy 2012;42(1):112-22. View abstract.
Grin PM, Kowalewska PM, Alhazzan W, Fox-Robichaud AE. Lactobacillus for preventing recurrent urinary tract infections in women: meta-analysis. Can J Urol 2013;20(1):6607-14. View abstract.
Guandalini S, Pensabene L, Zikri MA, et al. Lactobacillus GG administered in oral rehydration solution to children with acute diarrhea: a multicenter European trial. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2000;30:54. View abstract.
Guarino A, Ashkenazi S, Gendrel D, Lo Vecchio A, Shamir R, Szajewska H; European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition; European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases. European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition/European Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases evidence-based guidelines for the management of acute gastroenteritis in children in Europe: update 2014. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2014 Jul;59(1):132-52. View abstract.
Guarino A, Canani RB, Spagnuolo MI, et al. Oral bacterial therapy reduces the duration of symptoms and of viral excretion in children with mild diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;25:516-9. View abstract.
Gupta K, Stapleton AE, Hooton TM, et al. Inverse association of H2O2-producing Lactobacilli and vaginal Escherichia coli colonization in women with recurrent urinary tract infections. J Infect Dis 1998;178:446-50. View abstract.
Hallen A, Jarstrand C, Pahlson C. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with lactobacilli. Sex Transm Dis 1992;19:146-8.. View abstract.
Halpern GM, Prindiville T, Blankenburg M, et al. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with Lacteol Fort: a randomized, double-blind, cross-over trial. Am J Gastroenterol 1996;91:1579-85. View abstract.
Han Y, Kim B, Ban J, Lee J, Kim BJ, Choi BS, Hwang S, Ahn K, Kim J. A randomized trial of Lactobacillus plantarum CJLP133 for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2012;23(7):667-73. View abstract.
Hasslöf P, West CE, Videhult FK, Brandelius C, Stecksén-Blicks C. Early intervention with probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei F19 has no long-term effect on caries experience. Caries Res. 2013;47(6):559-65. View abstract.
Hatakka K, Savilahti E, Ponka A, et al. Effect of long term consumption of probiotic milk on infections in children attending day care centres: double blind, randomised trial. BMJ 2001;322:1327. View abstract.
Heczko PB, Tomusiak A, Adamski P, et al. Supplementation of standard antibiotic therapy with oral probiotics for bacterial vaginosis and aerobic vaginitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. BMC Womens Health. 2015;15:115. View abstract.
Hegar B, Hutapea EI, Advani N, Vandenplas Y. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013;89(4):381-7. View abstract.
Hempel S, Newberry SJ, Maher AR, Wang Z, Miles JN, Shanman R, Johnsen B, Shekelle PG. Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2012 9;307(18):1959-69. View abstract.
Herthelius M, Gorbach SL, Mollby R, et al. Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51. View abstract.
Hickson M, D'Souza AL, Muthu N, et al. Use of probiotic Lactobacillus preparation to prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics: randomised double blind placebo controlled trial. BMJ 2007;335(7610):80. View abstract.
Hilton E, Kolakowski P, Singer C, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG as a Diarrheal Preventative in Travelers. J Travel Med 1997;4:41-3. View abstract.
Hilton E, Rindos P, Isenberg HD. Lactobacillus GG Vaginal Suppositories and Vaginitis. J Clin Microbiol 1995;33:1433. View abstract.
Hong Chau TT, Minh Chau NN, Hoang Le NT, et al. Oxford-Vietnam Probiotics Study Group. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus acidophilus for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea in Vietnamese children. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018;37(1):35-42. View abstract.
Huang CF, Chie WC, Wang IJ. Efficacy of Lactobacillus Administration in School-Age Children with Asthma: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2018;10(11). View abstract.
Hudault S, Lievin V, Bernet-Camard MF, Servin AL. Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. Appl Environ Microbiol 1997;63:513-8. View abstract.
Husain S, Allotey J, Drymoussi Z, et al. Effects of oral probiotic supplements on vaginal microbiota during pregnancy: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with microbiome analysis. BJOG. 2020;127(2):275-284. View abstract.
Indrio F, Di Mauro A, Riezzo G, Civardi E, Intini C, Corvaglia L, Ballardini E, Bisceglia M, Cinquetti M, Brazzoduro E, Del Vecchio A, Tafuri S, Francavilla R. Prophylactic use of a probiotic in the prevention of colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(3):228-33. View abstract.
Isolauri E, Juntunen M, Rautanen T, et al. A human Lactobacillus strain (Lactobacillus casei sp strain GG) promotes recovery from acute diarrhea in children. Pediatrics 1991;88:90-7. View abstract.
Isolauri E, Sutas Y, Kankaanpaa P, et al. Probiotics: effects on immunity. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:444S-450S. View abstract.
Jaisamrarn U, Triratanachat S, Chaikittisilpa S, Grob P, Prasauskas V, Taechakraichana N. Ultra-low-dose estriol and lactobacilli in the local treatment of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy. Climacteric. 2013;16(3):347-55. View abstract.
Jayasimhan S, Yap NY, Roest Y, Rajandram R, Chin KF. Efficacy of microbial cell preparation in improving chronic constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Nutr. 2013;32(6):928-34. View abstract.
Jiao X, Fu MD, Wang YY, Xue J, Zhang Y. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World J Pediatr. 2020;16(2):135-142. View abstract.
Johnston BC, Ma SSY, Goldenberg JZ, et al. Probiotics for the prevention of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea. Ann Intern Med 2012;157:878-8. View abstract.
Jois RS, Tan JK, Silva D. Do probiotics in pregnancy reduce the risk of group B streptococcal colonisation? J Paediatr Child Health. 2020;56(9):1468-1472. View abstract.
Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Parent M, Prakash S. Cholesterol-lowering efficacy of a microencapsulated bile salt hydrolase-active Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242 yoghurt formulation in hypercholesterolaemic adults. Br J Nutr. 2012;107(10):1505-13. View abstract.
Jones ML, Martoni CJ, Prakash S. Cholesterol lowering and inhibition of sterol absorption by Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 30242: a randomized controlled trial. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2012;66(11):1234-41. View abstract.
Jung GW, Tse JE, Guiha I, Rao J. Prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of an acne treatment regimen with and without a probiotic supplement and minocycline in subjects with mild to moderate acne. J Cutan Med Surg. 2013;17(2):114-22. View abstract.
Kalima P, Masterton RG, Roddie PH, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus infection in a child following bone marrow transplant. J Infect 1996;32:165-7. View abstract.
Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H et al. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;357:1076-1079. View abstract.
Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Poussa T, et al. Probiotics and prevention of atopic disease: 4-year follow-up of a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2003;361:1869-71. View abstract.
Karamali M, Dadkhah F, Sadrkhanlou M, et al. Effects of probiotic supplementation on glycaemic control and lipid profiles in gestational diabetes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Diabetes Metab 2016;42(4):234-41. View abstract.
Kasravi FB, Adawi D, Molin G, et al. Effect of oral supplementation of lactobacilli on bacterial translocation in acute liver injury induced by D-galactosamine. J Hepatol 1997;26:417-24. View abstract.
Kato K, Funabashi N, Takaoka H, et al. Lactobacillus paracasei endocarditis in a consumer of probiotics with advanced and severe bicuspid aortic valve stenosis complicated with diffuse left ventricular mid-layer fibrosis. Int J Cardiol 2016;224:157-61. View abstract.
Kelly JR, Allen AP, Temko A, et al. Lost in translation? The potential psychobiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) fails to modulate stress or cognitive performance in healthy male subjects. Brain Behav Immun. 2017;61:50-59. View abstract.
Khalili L, Alipour B, Asghari Jafar-Abadi M, et al. The Effects of Lactobacillus casei on Glycemic Response, Serum Sirtuin1 and Fetuin-A Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Iran Biomed J. 2019;23(1):68-77. View abstract.
Kim HJ, Camilleri M, McKinzie S, et al. A randomized controlled trial of a probiotic, VSL#3, on gut transit and symptoms in diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:895-904. . View abstract.
Kim J, Yun JM, Kim MK, Kwon O, Cho B. Lactobacillus gasseri BNR17 Supplementation Reduces the Visceral Fat Accumulation and Waist Circumference in Obese Adults: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Med Food. 2018 May;21(5):454-461. View abstract.
Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, et al. Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. J Am Coll Nutr 1996;15:408-12. View abstract.
Klein G, Zill E, Schindler R, et al. Peritonitis associated with vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus rhamnosus in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient; organism identification, antibiotic therapy, and case report. J Clin Microbiol 1998;36:1781-3. View abstract.
Kolodziej M, Szajewska H. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2019;25(6):699-704. View abstract.
Koning CJ, Jonkers DM, Stobberingh EE, et al. The effect of a multispecies probiotic on the intestinal microbiota and bowel movements in healthy volunteers taking the antibiotic amoxycillin. Am J Gastroenterol 2008;103(1):178-89. View abstract.
Krag A, Munkholm P, Israelsen H, von Ryberg B, Andersen KK, Bendtsen F. Profermin is efficacious in patients with active ulcerative colitis--a randomized controlled trial. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013;19(12):2584-92. View abstract.
Kuhbacher T, Ott SJ, Helwig U, et al. Bacterial and fungal microbiota in relation to probiotic therapy (VSL#3) in pouchitis. Gut 2006;55:833-41. View abstract.
Land MH, Rouster-Stevens K, Woods CR, et al. Lactobacillus sepsis associated with probiotic therapy. Pediatrics 2005;115:178-81. View abstract.
Langkamp-Henken B, Rowe CC, Ford AL, Christman MC, Nieves C Jr, Khouri L,Specht GJ, Girard SA, Spaiser SJ, Dahl WJ. Bifidobacterium bifidum R0071 results in a greater proportion of healthy days and a lower percentage of academically stressed students reporting a day of cold/flu: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Br J Nutr. 2015 14;113(3):426-34. View abstract.
Larsson PG, Stray-Pedersen B, Ryttig KR, Larsen S. Human lactobacilli as supplementation of clindamycin to patients with bacterial vaginosis reduce the recurrence rate; a 6-month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. BMC Womens Health 2008;8:3. View abstract.
Lau CS, Chamberlain RS. Probiotics are effective at preventing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Gen Med. 2016;9:27-37. View abstract.
Lee C, Wongjarupong N, Narayan M, Melzer AC. Acute cholecystitis complicated with gallbladder perforation and peritonitis caused by vancomycin-resistant Lactobacillus paracasei. Cureus. 2020;12(3):e7476. View abstract.
Lee DE, Huh CS, Ra J, et al. Clinical Evidence of Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum HY7714 on Skin Aging: A Randomized, Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2015;25(12):2160-8. View abstract.
Lewis ED, Antony JM, Crowley DC, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus paracasei HA-196 and Bifidobacterium longum R0175 in alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): A randomized, placebo-controlled study. Nutrients. 2020;12(4):1159. View abstract.
Leyer GJ, Li S, Mubasher ME, et al. Probiotic effects on cold and influenza-like symptom incidence and duration in children. Pediatrics 2009;124:e172-e179. View abstract.
Li YT, Xu H, Ye JZ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in treatment of acute pediatric diarrhea: A systematic review with meta-analysis. World J Gastroenterol. 2019;25(33):4999-5016. View abstract.
Lim PS, Wang HF, Lee MC, et al. The efficacy of lactobacillus-containing probiotic supplementation in hemodialysis patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Ren Nutr. 2021;31(2):189-198. View abstract.
Lin MY, Yen CL, Chen SH. Management of lactose maldigestion by consuming milk containing lactobacilli. Dig Dis Sci 1998;43:133-7. View abstract.
Lindsay KL, Brennan L, Kennelly MA, et al. Impact of probiotics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on metabolic health: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2015;212(4):496.e1-11. View abstract.
Linn YH, Thu KK, Win NHH. Effect of Probiotics for the Prevention of Acute Radiation-Induced Diarrhoea Among Cervical Cancer Patients: a Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019;11(2):638-647. View abstract.
Litton E, Anstey M, Broadhurst D, et al. Early and sustained Lactobacillus plantarum probiotic therapy in critical illness: the randomised, placebo-controlled, restoration of gut microflora in critical illness trial (ROCIT). Intensive Care Med. 2021;47(3):307-315. View abstract.
Liu D, Shao L, Zhang Y, Kang W. Safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Int J Surg. 2020;76:79-87. View abstract.
Liu J, Zhang D, Guo Y, et al. The effect of Lactobacillus consumption on human blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2020;54:102547. View abstract.
Liu S, Hu P, Du X, Zhou T, Pei X. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation for preventing respiratory infections in children: a meta-analysis of randomized, placebo-controlled trials. Indian Pediatr. 2013;50(4):377-81. View abstract.
Losada MA, Olleros T. Towards a healthier diet for the colon: the influence of fructooligosaccharides and lactobacilli on intestinal health. Nutr Res 2002;22:71-84.
Lu L, Walker WA. Pathologic and physiologic interactions of bacteria with the gastrointestinal epithelium. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73;1124S-1130S. View abstract.
Lü M, Yu S, Deng J, et al. Efficacy of probiotic supplementation therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PLoS One 2016;11(10):e0163743. View abstract.
Lue KH, Sun HL, Lu KH, Ku MS, Sheu JN, Chan CH, Wang YH. A trial of adding Lactobacillus johnsonii EM1 to levocetirizine for treatment of perennial allergic rhinitis in children aged 7-12 years. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;76(7):994-1001. View abstract.
Luoto R, Matomäki J, Isolauri E, Lehtonen L. Incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis in very-low-birth-weight infants related to the use of Lactobacillus GG. Acta Paediatr 2010;99:1135-8. View abstract.
Lyra A, Hillilä M, Huttunen T, et al. Irritable bowel syndrome symptom severity improves equally with probiotic and placebo. World J Gastroenterol. 2016;22(48):10631-42. View abstract.
MacGregor G, Smith AJ, Thakker B, Kinsella J. Yoghurt biotherapy: contraindicated in immunosuppressed patients? Postgrad Med J 2002;78:366-7. View abstract.
Mack DR, Michail S, Shu W, et al. Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. Am J Physiol 1999;276(4 Pt 1):G941-50. View abstract.
Madsen KL, Doyle JS, Jewell LD, et al. Lactobacillus species prevents colitis in interleukin 10 gene-deficient mice. Gastroenterology 1999;116:1107-14. View abstract.
Maggi L, Mastromarino P, Macchia S, et al. Technological and biological evaluation of tablets containing different strains of lactobacilli for vaginal administration. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2000;50:389-95. View abstract.
Majamaa H, Isolauri E. Probiotics: a novel approach in the management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:179-85. . View abstract.
Manzanares W, Lemieux M, Langlois PL, Wischmeyer PE. Probiotic and synbiotic therapy in critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Crit Care. 2016;19:262. View abstract.
Mao Y, Nobaek S, Kasravi B, et al. The effects of Lactobacillus strains and oat fiber on methotrexate-induced enterocolitis in rats. Gastroenterology 1996;111:334-44. View abstract.
Marini A, Jaenicke T, Grether-Beck S, Le Floc'h C, Cheniti A, Piccardi N,Krutmann J. Prevention of polymorphic light eruption by oral administration of a nutritional supplement containing lycopene, ß-carotene, and Lactobacillus johnsonii: results from a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2014;30(4):189-94. View abstract.
Marteau P, Lemann M, Seksik P, et al. Ineffectiveness of Lactobacillus johnsonii LA1 for prophylaxis of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease: a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled GETAID trial. Gut 2006;55:842-7. View abstract.
Marteau P, Seksik P. Tolerance of probiotics and prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol 2004;38:S67-9. View abstract.
Martinelli M, Ummarino D, Giugliano FP, et al. Efficacy of a standardized extract of Matricariae chamomilla L., Melissa officinalis L. and tyndallized Lactobacillus acidophilus (HA122) in infantile colic: an open randomized controlled trial. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2017 Dec;29:e13145. View abstract.
McFarland LV. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol 2006;101:812-22. View abstract.
McFarland LV. Probiotics for the Primary and Secondary Prevention of C. difficile Infections: A Meta-analysis and Systematic Review. Antibiotics. 2015;4:160-178.
McGroarty JA. Probiotic use of lactobacilli in the human female urogenital tract. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 1993;6:251-64. View abstract.
McIntosh GH, Royle PJ, Playne MJ. A probiotic strain of L. acidophilus reduces DMH-induced large intestinal tumors in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Nutr Cancer 1999;35:153-9. View abstract.
Meini S, Laureano R, Fani L, et al. Breakthrough Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG bacteremia associated with probiotic use in an adult patient with severe active ulcerative colitis: case report and review of the literature. Infection. 2015;43(6):777-81. View abstract.
Michael DR, Jack AA, Masetti G, et al. A randomised controlled study shows supplementation of overweight and obese adults with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria reduces bodyweight and improves well-being. Sci Rep. 2020;10(1):4183. View abstract.
Michalickova D, Minic R, Dikic N, et al. Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti L10 supplementation reduces respiratory infection duration in a cohort of elite athletes: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016 Jul;41(7):782-9. View abstract.
Miele E, Pascarella F, Giannetti E. et al. Effect of a probiotic preparation (VSL#3) on induction and maintenance of remission in children with ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104:437-43. View abstract.
Mimura T, Rizzello F, Helwig U, et al. Once daily high dose probiotic therapy (VSL#3) for maintaining remission in recurrent or refractory pouchitis. Gut 2004;53:108-14. View abstract.
Mitchell NJ, Kumi J, Aleser M, et al. Short-term safety and efficacy of calcium montmorillonite clay (UPSN) in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;91(4):777-85. View abstract.
Mohseni AH, Taghinezhad-S S, Keyvani H, Ghobadi N. Comparison of Acyclovir and Multistrain Lactobacillus brevis in Women with Recurrent Genital Herpes Infections: a Double-Blind, Randomized, Controlled Study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2018;10(4):740-747. View abstract.
Morgan RL, Preidis GA, Kashyap PC, et al. Probiotics reduce mortality and morbidity in preterm, low-birth-weight infants: a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized trials. Gastroenterology 2020;159(2):467-80. View abstract.
Morita Y, Jounai K, Miyake M, Inaba M, Kanauchi O. Effect of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110 Ingestion on Ocular Disorders Caused by Visual Display Terminal (VDT) Loads: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Parallel-Group Study. Nutrients. 2018 Aug 9;10(8). View abstract.
Morrow LE, Kollef MH, Casale TB. Probiotic prophylaxis of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a blinded, randomized, controlled trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2010;182:1058-64. View abstract.
Morvaridzadeh M, Nachvak SM, Mohammadi R, et al. Probiotic yogurt fortified with vitamin D can improve glycemic status in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients: a randomized clinical trial. Clin Nutr Res. 2021;10(1):36-47. View abstract.
Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al. A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2000;14:1625-9. View abstract.
Aaron JG, Sobieszczyk ME, Weiner SD, Whittier S, Lowy FD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus endocarditis after upper endoscopy. Open Forum Infect Dis 2017;4(2):ofx085. View abstract.
Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Björkstén B, Oldaeus G, Jenmalm MC. No effect of probiotics on respiratory allergies: a seven-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial in infancy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2013;24(6):556-61. View abstract.
Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson T, Bottcher MF, et al. Probiotics in prevention of IgE-associated eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2007;119:1174-80.. View abstract.
Agrawal S, Tuchman ES, Bruce MJ, Theodorou ME. Fatal Lactobacillus endocarditis in a patient with transcatheter aortic valve replacement. BMJ Case Rep. 2020;13(11):e236835. View abstract.
Ahn HY, Kim M, Chae JS, et al. Supplementation with two probiotic strains, Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 and Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032, reduces fasting triglycerides and enhances apolipoprotein A-V levels in non-diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. Atherosclerosis. 2015;241(2):649-56. View abstract.
Akar M, Eras Z, Oncel MY, et al. Impact of oral probiotics on neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2017;30(4):411-415. View abstract.
Akram Z, Shafqat SS, Aati S, Kujan O, Fawzy A. Clinical efficacy of probiotics in the treatment of gingivitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Aust Dent J. 2020;65(1):12-20. View abstract.
Al Faleh K, Anabrees J. Probiotics for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(4):CD005496. View abstract.
Alak JI, Wolf BW, Mdurvwa EG, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus reuteri on intestinal resistance to Cryptosporidium parvum infection in a murine model of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. J Infect Dis 1997;175:218-21. View abstract.
Alander M, Satokari R, Korpela R, et al. Persistence of colonization of human colonic mucosa by a probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, after oral consumption. Appl Environ Microbiol 1999;65:351-4. View abstract.
Albarillo FS, Shah U, Joyce C, Slade D. Lactobacillus rhamnosus Infection: A single-center 4-year descriptive analysis. J Glob Infect Dis. 2020;12(3):119-123. View abstract.
Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Sharif SK, Vaghef-Mehrabany L,Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Nakhjavani MR, Mohtadi-Nia J. Effects of Lactobacillus casei supplementation on disease activity and inflammatory cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2014;17(5):519-27. View abstract.
Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, Thornton CA, Gravenor MB, Garaiova I, Plummer SF, Wang D, Morgan G. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child 2014;99(11):1014-9. View abstract.
Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older inpatients (PLACIDE): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2013 Oct 12;382(9900):1249-57. View abstract.
Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D, Bradley C, Sewell B, Hutchings H, Harris W, Dhar A, Brown H, Foden A, Gravenor MB, Mack D, Phillips CJ. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE). Health Technol Assess 2013;17(57):1-140. View abstract.
Antoun M, Hattab Y, Akhrass FA, Hamilton LD. Uncommon pathogen, Lactobacillus, causing infective endocarditis: Case report and review. Case Rep Infect Dis. 2020;2020:8833948. View abstract.
Aqaeinezhad Rudbane SM, Rahmdel S, Abdollahzadeh SM, Zare M, Bazrafshan A, Mazloomi SM. The efficacy of probiotic supplementation in rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Inflammopharmacology. 2018 Feb;26(1):67-76. View abstract.
Arvola T, Laiho K, Torkkeli S, et al. Prophylactic Lactobacillus GG reduces antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children with respiratory infections: a randomized study. Pediatrics 1999;104:e64. View abstract.
Badehnoosh B, Karamali M, Zarrati M, et al. The effects of probiotic supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation, oxidative stress and pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 May;31(9):1128-1136. View abstract.
Baerheim A, Larsen E, Digranes A. Vaginal application of lactobacilli in the prophylaxis of recurrent lower urinary tract infection in women. Scand J Prim Health Care 1994;12:239-43. View abstract.
Barrett JS, Canale KE, Gearry RB, et al. Probiotic effects on intestinal fermentation patterns in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 28;14(32):5020-4. View abstract.
Beausoleil, M., Fortier, N., Guenette, S., L'ecuyer, A., Savoie, M., Franco, M., Lachaine, J., and Weiss, K. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus Cl1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Can J Gastroenterol 2007;21(11):732-736. View abstract.
Beerepoot MA, ter Riet G, Nys S, van der Wal WM, de Borgie CA, de Reijke TM,Prins JM, Koeijers J, Verbon A, Stobberingh E, Geerlings SE. Lactobacilli vs antibiotics to prevent urinary tract infections: a randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial in postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med 2012;172(9):704-12. View abstract.
Begtrup LM, de Muckadell OB, Kjeldsen J, Christensen RD, Jarbøl DE. Long-term treatment with probiotics in primary care patients with irritable bowel syndrome--a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2013;48(10):1127-35. View abstract.
Berggren A, Lazou Ahrén I, Larsson N, Onning G. Randomised, double-blind and placebo-controlled study using new probiotic lactobacilli for strengthening the body immune defence against viral infections. Eur J Nutr 2011;50:203-10. View abstract.
Berni Canani R, Di Costanzo M, Bedogni G, et al. Extensively hydrolyzed casein formula containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG reduces the occurrence of other allergic manifestations in children with cow's milk allergy: 3-year randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017;139(6):1906-1913. View abstract.
Bibiloni R, Fedorak RN, Tannock GW, et al. VSL#3 probiotic-mixture induces remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis. Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1539-46. View abstract.
Biller JA, Katz AJ, Flores AF, et al. Treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis with Lactobacillus GG. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1995;21:224-6. View abstract.
Blaabjerg S, Artzi DM, Aabenhus R. Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Outpatients-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Antibiotics (Basel). 2017;6(4). View abstract.
Borriello SP, Hammes WP, Holzapfel W, et al. Safety of probiotics that contain lactobacilli or bifidobacteria. Clin Infect Dis 2003;36:775-80. View abstract.
Bradshaw CS, Pirotta M, De Guingand D, Hocking JS, Morton AN, Garland SM,Fehler G, Morrow A, Walker S, Vodstrcil LA, Fairley CK. Efficacy of oral metronidazole with vaginal clindamycin or vaginal probiotic for bacterial vaginosis: randomised placebo-controlled double-blind trial. PLoS One 2012;7(4):e34540. View abstract.
Bruce AW, Reid G. Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J Microbiol 1988;34:339-43. View abstract.
Butler CC, Lau M, Gillespie D, et al. Effect of probiotic use on antibiotic administration among care home residents: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2020;324(1):47-56. View abstract.
Cadieux P, Burton J, Gardiner G, et al. Lactobacillus strains and vaginal ecology. JAMA 2002;287:1940-1. View abstract.
Cai T, Gallelli L, Cione E, et al. The use of Lactobacillus casei DG® prevents symptomatic episodes and reduces the antibiotic use in patients affected by chronic bacterial prostatitis: results from a phase IV study. World J Urol. 2021. View abstract.
Callaway LK, McIntyre HD, Barrett HL, et al. Probiotics for the Prevention of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus in Overweight and Obese Women: Findings From the SPRING Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(3):364-371. View abstract.
Mustapha A, Jiang T, Savaiano DA. Improvement of lactose digestion by humans following ingestion of unfermented acidophilus milk: influence of bile sensitivity, lactose transport, and acid tolerance of Lactobacillus acidophilus. J Dairy Sci 1997;80:1537-45. View abstract.
Navarro-Rodriguez T, Silva FM, Barbuti RC, Mattar R, Moraes-Filho JP, de Oliveira MN, Bogsan CS, Chinzon D, Eisig JN. Association of a probiotic to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen does not increase efficacy or decreases the adverse effects of the treatment: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013 26;13:56. View abstract.
Niedzielin K, Kordecki H, Birkenfeld B. A controlled, double-blind, randomized study on the efficacy of Lactobacillus plantarum 299V in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2001;13:1143-7. View abstract.
Nishida K, Sawada D, Kuwano Y, Tanaka H, Rokutan K. Health Benefits of Lactobacillus gasseri CP2305 Tablets in Young Adults Exposed to Chronic Stress: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(8). pii: E1859. View abstract.
Nixon AF, Cunningham SJ, Cohen HW, Crain EF. The effect of Lactobacillus GG on acute diarrheal illness in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28(10):1048-51. View abstract.
Nobaek S, Johansson ML, Molin G, et al. Alteration of intestinal microflora is associated with reduction in abdominal bloating and pain in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:1231-8.. View abstract.
O'Mahony L, McCarthy J, Kelly P, et al. Lactobacillus and bifidobacterium in irritable bowel syndrome: symptom responses and relationship to cytokine profiles. Gastroenterology 2005;128:541-51. View abstract.
O'Sullivan MA, O'Morain CA. Bacterial supplementation in the irritable bowel syndrome. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Dig Liver Dis 2000;32:294-301. View abstract.
Oberhelman RA, Gilman RH, Sheen P, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of Lactobacillus GG to prevent diarrhea in undernourished Peruvian children. J Pediatr 1999;134:15-20. View abstract.
Ojetti V, Ianiro G, Tortora A, et al. The effect of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation in adults with chronic functional constipation: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2014;23(4):387-91. View abstract.
Okesene-Gafa KA, Moore AE, Jordan V, McCowan L, Crowther CA. Probiotic treatment for women with gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health and well-being. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2020;6(6):CD012970. View abstract.
Oksanen PJ, Salminen S, Saxelin M, et al. Prevention of travellers' diarrhoea by Lactobacillus GG. Ann Med 1990;22:53-6.. View abstract.
Olek A, Woynarowski M, Ahrén IL, et al. Efficacy and safety of Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 9843 (LP299V) in the prevention of antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in children-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Pediatr 2017;186:82-6. View abstract.
Oncel MY, Sari FN, Arayici S, Guzoglu N, Erdeve O, Uras N, Oguz SS, Dilmen U. Lactobacillus Reuteri for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in very low birthweight infants: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99(2):F110-5. View abstract.
Osterlund P, Ruotsalainen T, Korpela R, et al. Lactobacillus supplementation for diarrhoea related to chemotherapy of colorectal cancer: a randomised study. Br J Cancer 2007;97:1028-34. View abstract.
Palmfeldt J, Hahn-Hagerdal B. Influence of culture pH on survival of Lactobacillus reuteri subjected to freeze-drying. Int J Food Microbiol 2000;55:235-8. View abstract.
Parent D, Bossens M, Bayot D, et al. Therapy of bacterial vaginosis using exogenously-applied Lactobacilli acidophili and a low dose of estriol: a placebo-controlled multicentric clinical trial. Arzneimittelforschung 1996;46:68-73. . View abstract.
Park MS, Kwon B, Ku S, Ji GE4. The Efficacy of Bifidobacterium longum BORI and Lactobacillus acidophilus AD031 Probiotic Treatment in Infants with Rotavirus Infection. Nutrients. 2017;9(8). pii: E887. View abstract.
Parma M, Dindelli M, Caputo L, Redaelli A, Quaranta L, Candiani M. The role of vaginal Lactobacillus Rhamnosus (Normogin®) in preventing Bacterial Vaginosis in women with history of recurrences, undergoing surgical menopause: a prospective pilot study. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013;17(10):1399-403. View abstract.
Pasala S, Singer L, Arshad T, Roach K. Lactobacillus endocarditis in a healthy patient with probiotic use. IDCases. 2020;22:e00915. View abstract.
Pedersen AML, Bukkehave KH, Bennett EP, Twetman S. Effect of lozenges containing Lactobacillus reuteri on the severity of recurrent aphthous ulcers: a pilot study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2020;12(3):819-823. View abstract.
Pedone CA, Arnaud CC, Postaire ER, et al. Multicentric study of the effect of milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei on the incidence of diarrhoea. Int J Clin Pract 2000;54:589-71. View abstract.
Pedone CA, Bernabeu AO, Postaire ER, et al. The effect of supplementation with milk fermented by Lactobacillus casei (strain DN-114 001) on acute diarrhoea in children attending day care centres. Int J Clin Pract 1999;53:179-84. View abstract.
Pelekos G, Ho SN, Acharya A, Leung WK, McGrath C. A double-blind, paralleled-arm, placebo-controlled and randomized clinical trial of the effectiveness of probiotics as an adjunct in periodontal care. J Clin Periodontol. 2019;46(12):1217-1227. View abstract.
Pellonperä O, Mokkala K, Houttu N, et al. Efficacy of fish oil and/or probiotic intervention on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus in an at-risk group of overweight and obese women: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial. Diabetes Care. 2019;42(6):1009-1017. View abstract.
Pellonperä O, Vahlberg T, Mokkala K, et al. Weight gain and body composition during pregnancy: a randomised pilot trial with probiotics and/or fish oil. Br J Nutr. 2020 Nov 4:1-11. View abstract.
Pelto L, Ioslauri E, Lilius EM, et al. Probiotic bacteria down-regulate the milk-induced inflammatory response in milk-hypersensitive subjects but have an immunostimulatory effect in healthy subjects. Clin Exp Allergy 1998;28:1474-9. View abstract.
Petruzziello C, Migneco A, Cardone S, et al. Supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 4659 in patients affected by acute uncomplicated diverticulitis: a randomized double-blind placebo controlled trial. Int J Colorectal Dis. 2019;34(6):1087-1094. View abstract.
Pierce A. The American Pharmaceutical Association Practical Guide to Natural Medicines. New York: The Stonesong Press, 1999:19.
Pirotta M, Gunn J, Chondros P, et al. Effect of lactobacillus in preventing post-antibiotic vulvovaginal candidiasis: a randomized, controlled trial. BMJ 2004;329:548. View abstract.
Pochapin M. The effect of probiotics on Clostridium difficile diarrhea. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S11-3. View abstract.
Prantera C, Scribano ML, Falasco G, et al. Ineffectiveness of probiotics in preventing recurrence after curative resection for Crohn's disease: a randomised controlled trial with Lactobacillus GG. Gut 2002;51:405-9. View abstract.
Preston K, Krumian R, Hattner J, de Montigny D, Stewart M, Gaddam S. Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2 improve quality-of-life and IBS symptoms: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study. Benef Microbes. 2018;9(5):697-706. View abstract.
Ramachandran L, Dontaraju VS, Patel K. Lactobacillus-associated spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in a liver cirrhosis patient on probiotics. Cureus. 2020;12(12):e11896. View abstract.
Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(6):1355-60. View abstract.
Rautava S, Kalliomaki M, Isolauri E. Probiotics during pregnancy and breast-feeding might confer immunomodulatory protection against atopic disease in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2002;109:119-21. View abstract.
Rautio M, Jousimies-Somer H, Kauma H, et al. Liver abscess due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain indistinguishable from L. rhamnosus strain GG. Clin Infect Dis 1999;28:1159-60. View abstract.
Razmpoosh E, Javadi A, Ejtahed HS, Mirmiran P, Javadi M, Yousefinejad A. The effect of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A randomized placebo controlled trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr. 2019;13(1):175-182. View abstract.
Reid G, Bruce AW, Cook RL, et al. Effect on urogenital flora of antibiotic therapy for urinary tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis 1990;22:43-7. View abstract.
Reid G, Bruce AW, Taylor M. Influence of three-day antimicrobial therapy and lactobacillus vaginal suppositories on recurrence of urinary tract infections. Clin Ther 1992;14:11-6. View abstract.
Reid G, Cook RL, Bruce AW. Examination of strains of lactobacilli for properties that may influence bacterial interference in the urinary tract. J Urol 1987;138:330-5. View abstract.
Reid G. Probiotic agents to protect the urogenital tract against infection. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:437S-443S. View abstract.
Rerksuppaphol S, Rerksuppaphol L. Randomized controlled trial of probiotics to reduce common cold in schoolchildren. Pediatr Int. 2012;54(5):682-7. View abstract.
Riezzo G, Orlando A, D'Attoma B, Linsalata M, Martulli M, Russo F. Randomised double blind placebo controlled trial on Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938: improvement in symptoms and bowel habit in functional constipation. Benef Microbes. 2017:1-10. View abstract.
Ringel-Kulka T, Goldsmith JR, Carroll IM, Barros SP, Palsson O, Jobin C, Ringel Y. Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM affects colonic mucosal opioid receptor expression in patients with functional abdominal pain - a randomised clinical study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2014;40(2):200-7. View abstract.
Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1682S-7S. View abstract.
Roberfroid MB. Prebiotics and probiotics: are they functional foods? Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(6 Suppl):1682S-7S; discussion 1688S-90S. View abstract.
Romano C, Ferrau' V, Cavataio F, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri in children with functional abdominal pain (FAP). J Paediatr Child Health 2010 Jul 8. [Epub ahead of print]. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Benfeldt E, Nielsen SD, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in children with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2003;111:389-95. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains in young children hospitalized with acute diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:411-6. View abstract.
Rosenfeldt V, Michaelsen KF, Jakobsen M, et al. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus strains on acute diarrhea in a cohort of nonhospitalized children attending day-care centers. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2002;21:417-9. View abstract.
Sadeghi-Bojd S, Naghshizadian R, Mazaheri M, Ghane Sharbaf F, Assadi F. Efficacy of probiotic prophylaxis after the first febrile urinary tract infection in children with normal urinary tracts. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020;9(3):305-310. View abstract.
Safdar N, Barigala R, Said A, McKinley L. Feasibility and tolerability of probiotics for prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in hospitalized US military veterans. J Clin Pharm Ther 2008;33:663-8. View abstract.
Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, et al. Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001;47:709-10. View abstract.
Samimi M, Dadkhah A, Haddad Kashani H, Tajabadi-Ebrahimi M, Seyed Hosseini E, Asemi Z. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on metabolic status in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized double-blind clinical trial. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. 2019;11(4):1355-1361. View abstract.
Sampalis J, Psaradellis E, Rampakakis E. Efficacy of Bio K+ CL1285 in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea - a placebo controlled double-blind randomized, multi-center study. Arch Med Sci 2010;6:56-64. View abstract.
Sanborn V, Azcarate-Peril MA, Updegraff J, Manderino L, Gunstad J. Randomized clinical trial examining the impact of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG probiotic supplementation on cognitive functioning in middle-aged and older adults. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2020;16:2765-2777. View abstract.
Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S, Lepage M, Rezzonico E, Ngom-Bru C, Berger B, Philippe L, Ammon-Zuffrey C, Leone P, Chevrier G, St-Amand E, Marette A, Doré J, Tremblay A. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr.2014 28;111(8):1507-19. View abstract.
Savino F, Cordisco L, Tarasco V, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 in infantile colic: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatrics 2010;126:e526-33. View abstract.
Savino F, Pelle E, Palumeri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri (American Type Culture Collection Strain 55730) versus simethicone in the treatment of infantile colic: a prospective randomized study. Pediatrics 2007;119:e124-30. View abstract.
Saxelin M, Chuang NH, Chassy B, et al. Lactobacilli and bacteremia in southern Finland 1989-1992. Clin Infect Dis 1996;22:564-6. View abstract.
Schmidt RM, Pilmann Laursen R, Bruun S, et al. Probiotics in late infancy reduce the incidence of eczema: A randomized controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2019;30(3):335-340. View abstract.
Schnadower D, Tarr PI, Casper TC, et al. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG versus Placebo for Acute Gastroenteritis in Children. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 22;379(21):2002-2014. View abstract.
Schultz M, Sartor RB. Probiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases. Am J Gastroenterol 2000;95:S19-21. View abstract.
Sen S, Mullan MM, Parker TJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 299v on colonic fermentation and symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. Dig Dis Sci 2002;47:2615-20. View abstract.
Shen J, Zuo ZX, Mao AP. Effect of probiotics on inducing remission and maintaining therapy in ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and pouchitis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2014;20(1):21-35. View abstract.
Shen NT, Maw A, Tmanova LL, et al. Timely Use of Probiotics in Hospitalized Adults Prevents Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review With Meta-Regression Analysis. Gastroenterology. 2017;152(8):1889-1900. View abstract.
Shida K, Sato T, Iizuka R, et al. Daily intake of fermented milk with Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota reduces the incidence and duration of upper respiratory tract infections in healthy middle-aged office workers. Eur J Nutr. 2017 Feb;56(1):45-53. doi: 10.1007/s00394-015-1056-1. Epub 2015 Sep 29. View abstract.
Shimizu M, Hashiguchi M, Shiga T, Tamura HO, Mochizuki M. Meta-analysis: effects of probiotic supplementation on lipid profiles in normal to mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. PLoS One 2015;10(10):e0139795. View abstract.
Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Isolauri E, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri as a therapeutic agent in acute diarrhea in young children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 1997;24:399-404. View abstract.
Shornikova AV, Casas IA, Mykkanen H, et al. Bacteriotherapy with Lactobacillus reuteri in rotavirus gastroenteritis. Pediatr Infect Dis J 1997;16:1103-7. View abstract.
Simpson MR, Dotterud CK, Storrø O, Johnsen R, Øien T. Perinatal probiotic supplementation in the prevention of allergy related disease: 6 year follow up of a randomised controlled trial. BMC Dermatol. 2015;15:13. View abstract.
Simrén M, Ohman L, Olsson J, et al. Clinical trial: the effects of a fermented milk containing three probiotic bacteria in patients with irritable bowel syndrome - a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2010;31(2):218-27. View abstract.
Sinclair A, Xie X, Saab L, Dendukuri N. Lactobacillus probiotics in the prevention of diarrhea associated with Clostridium difficile: a systematic review and Bayesian hierarchical meta-analysis. CMAJ Open. 2016;4(4):E706-E718. View abstract.
Slykerman RF, Kang J, Van Zyl N, et al. Effect of early probiotic supplementation on childhood cognition, behaviour and mood a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Acta Paediatr. 2018;107(12):2172-2178. View abstract.
Søndergaard B, Olsson J, Ohlson K, Svensson U, Bytzer P, Ekesbo R. Effects of probiotic fermented milk on symptoms and intestinal flora in patients with irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Gastroenterol 2011;46(6):663-72. View abstract.
St-Onge MP, Farnworth ER, Jones PJ. Consumption of fermented and nonfermented dairy products: effects on cholesterol concentrations and metabolism. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:674-81. View abstract.
Stensson M, Koch G, Coric S, Abrahamsson TR, Jenmalm MC, Birkhed D, Wendt LK. Oral administration of Lactobacillus reuteri during the first year of life reduces caries prevalence in the primary dentition at 9 years of age. Caries Res. 2014;48(2):111-7. View abstract.
Stotzer PO, Blomberg L, Conway PL, Henriksson A, Abrahamsson H. Probiotic treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth by Lactobacillus fermentum KLD. Scand J Infect Dis. 1996;28(6):615-9. View abstract.
Sullivan A, Barkholt L, Nord CE. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus F19 prevent antibiotic-associated ecological disturbances of Bacteroides fragilis in the intestine. J Antimicrob Chemother 2003;52:308-11. View abstract.
Sun J, Buys N. Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Ann Med 2015;47(6):430-40. View abstract.
Sung V, Hiscock H, Tang ML, Mensah FK, Nation ML, Satzke C, Heine RG, Stock A,Barr RG, Wake M. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. BMJ. 2014 1;348:g2107. View abstract.
Sutas Y, Hurme M, Isolauri E. Down-regulations of anti-CD3 antibody-induced IL-4 production by bovine caseins hydrolyzed with Lactobacillus GG-derived enzymes. Scand J Immunol 1996;43:687-9. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Canani RB, Guarino A, et al.; ESPGHAN working group for ProbioticsPrebiotics. Probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr 2016;62(3):495-506. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Gyrczuk E, Horvath A. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of infantile colic in breastfed infants: a randomized, double-blind,placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2013;162(2):257-62. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Kolodziej M. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children and adults. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2015;42(10):1149-57. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Kotowska M, Mrukowicz JZ, et al. Efficacy of Lactobacillus GG in prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in infants. J Pediatr 2001;138:361-5. View abstract.
Szajewska H, Ruszczynski M, Kolacek S. Meta-analysis shows limited evidence for using Lactobacillus acidophilus LB to treat acute gastroenteritis in children. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(3):249-55. View abstract.
Tankanow RM, Ross MB, Ertel IJ, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study of the efficacy of Lactinex in the prophylaxis of amoxicillin-induced diarrhea. DICP 1990;24:382-4. View abstract.
Tenorio-Jiménez C, Martínez-Ramírez MJ, Del Castillo-Codes I, et al. Lactobacillus reuteri V3401 Reduces Inflammatory Biomarkers and Modifies the Gastrointestinal Microbiome in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome: The PROSIR Study. Nutrients. 2019;11(8). pii: E1761. View abstract.
Thomas MR, Litin SC, Osmon DR, et al. Lack of effect of Lactobacillus GG on antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Mayo Clin Proc 2001;76:883-9. View abstract.
Tomasz B, Zoran S, Jaroslaw W, Ryszard M, Marcin G, Robert B, Piotr K, Lukasz K, Jacek P, Piotr G, Przemyslaw P, Michal D. Long-term use of probiotics Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium has a prophylactic effect on the occurrence and severity of pouchitis: a randomized prospective study. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:208064. View abstract.
Topcuoglu S, Gursoy T, Ovali F, Serce O, Karatekin G. A new risk factor for neonatal vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus colonisation: bacterial probiotics. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2015;28(12):1491-4. View abstract.
Trivic I, Niseteo T, Jadresin O, Hojsak I. Use of probiotics in the treatment of functional abdominal pain in children-systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Pediatr. 2021;180(2):339-351.View abstract.
Tursi A, Brandimarte G, Giorgetti GM, et al. Low-dose balsalazide plus a high-potency probiotic preparation is more effective than balsalazide alone or mesalazine in the treatment of acute mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Med Sci Monit 2004;10:PI126-31. View abstract.
Tynkkynen S, Singh KV, Varmanen P. Vancomycin resistance factor of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in relation to enterococcal vancomycin resistance (van) genes. Int J Food Microbiol 1998;41:195-204. View abstract.
Urbanska M, Gieruszczak-Bialek D, Szajewska H. Systematic review with meta-analysis: Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for diarrhoeal diseases in children. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016;43(10):1025-34. View abstract.
Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alipour B, Homayouni-Rad A, Sharif SK, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Zavvari S. Probiotic supplementation improves inflammatory status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition. 2014;30(4):430-5. View abstract.
Vahabnezhad E, Mochon AB, Wozniak LJ, Ziring DA. Lactobacillus bacteremia associated with probiotic use in a pediatric patient with ulcerative colitis. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2013;47(5):437-9. View abstract.
Van Niel CW, Feudtner C, Garrison MM, Christakis DA. Lactobacillus therapy for acute infectious diarrhea in children: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics 2002;109:678-84. View abstract.
Vanderhoof JA, Whitney DB, Antonson DL, et al. Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children. J Pediatr 1999;135:564-8. View abstract.
Vanderhoof JA, Young RJ. Current and potential uses of probiotics. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2004;93:S33-7. View abstract.
Velraeds MM, van der Mei HC, Reid G, Busscher HJ. Inhibition of initial adhesion of uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis by biosurfactants from Lactobacillus isolates. Appl Environ Microbiol 1996;62:1958-63. View abstract.
Venturi A, Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, et al. Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1999;13:1103-8. View abstract.
Videlock EJ, Cremonini F. Meta-analysis: probiotics in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2012;35(12):1355-69. View abstract.
Vitellio P, Celano G, Bonfrate L, Gobbetti M, Portincasa P, De Angelis M. Effects of Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus rhamnosus on gut microbiota in patients with lactose intolerance and persisting functional gastrointestinal symptoms: A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study. Nutrients. 2019;11(4):886. View abstract.
Wagner RD, Pierson C, Warner T, et al. Biotherapeutic effects of probiotic bacteria on candidiasis in immunodeficient mice. Infect Immun 1997;65:4165-4172. View abstract.
Waki N, Matsumoto M, Fukui Y, Suganuma H. Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus brevis KB290 on incidence of influenza infection among schoolchildren: an open-label pilot study. Lett Appl Microbiol 2014;59(6):565-71. View abstract.
Wallace CJK, Milev RV. The efficacy, safety, and tolerability of probiotics on depression: Clinical results from an open-label pilot study. Front Psychiatry. 2021;12:618279. View abstract.
Wang IJ, Wang JY. Children with atopic dermatitis show clinical improvement after Lactobacillus exposure. Clin Exp Allergy. 2015 Apr;45(4):779-87. View abstract.
Wang YH, Huang Y. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum supplementation to standard triple therapy on Helicobacter pylori eradication and dynamic changes in intestinal flora. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014;30(3):847-53. View abstract.
Wei H, Loimaranta V, Tenovuo J, et al. Stability and activity of specific antibodies against Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus in bovine milk fermented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG or treated at ultra-high temperature. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2002;17:9-15. View abstract.
Weizman Z, Abu-Abed J, Binsztok M. Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for the management of functional abdominal pain in childhood: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Pediatr. 2016;174:160-164.e1. View abstract.
Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion 2002;65:16-20. View abstract.
Wickens K, Barthow C, Mitchell EA, et al. Maternal supplementation alone with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 during pregnancy and breastfeeding does not reduce infant eczema. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018 May;29(3):296-302. View abstract.
Wickens K, Barthow C, Mitchell EA, et al. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 in early life on the cumulative prevalence of allergic disease to 11 years. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2018;29(8):808-814. View abstract.
Wickens K, Black P, Stanley TV, Mitchell E, Barthow C, Fitzharris P, Purdie G, Crane J. A protective effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 against eczema in the first 2 years of life persists to age 4 years. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42(7):1071-9. View abstract.
Wickens KL, Barthow CA, Murphy R, et al. Early pregnancy probiotic supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 may reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2017;117(6):804-813. View abstract.
Wildt S, Nordgaard I, Hansen U, Brockmann E, Rumessen JJ. A randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial with Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 for maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis. J Crohns Colitis 2011;5(2):115-21. View abstract.
Wojtyniak K, Horvath A, Dziechciarz P, Szajewska H. Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus Lcr35 in the Management of Functional Constipation in Children: A Randomized Trial. J Pediatr. 2017;184:101-105. View abstract.
Wolf BW, Wheeler KB, Ataya DG, Garleb KA. Safety and tolerance of Lactobacillus reuteri supplementation to a population infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Food Chem Toxicol 1998;36:1085-94 . View abstract.
Woo SI, Kim JY, Lee YJ, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus sakei supplementation in children with atopic eczema-dermatitis syndrome. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 2010;104:343-8. View abstract.
World Gastroenterology Organisation. WGO Practice Guideline - Probiotics and Prebiotics https://www.worldgastroenterology.org/guidelines/global-guidelines/probiotics-and-prebiotics (Accessed on January 2, 2019).
Wu G, Chen X, Cui N, et al. Preventive effect of Bifidobacterium supplementation on neonatal cholestasis in preterm neonates with very low birth weight. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2020;2020:4625315. View abstract.
Wu Y, Zhang Q, Ren Y, Ruan Z. Effect of probiotic Lactobacillus on lipid profile: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. PLoS One 2017;12(6):e0178868. View abstract.
Wullt M, Hagslatt ML, Odenholt I. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v for the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhoea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Scand J Infect Dis 2003;35:365-7. . View abstract.
Xu M, Wang J, Wang N, Sun F, Wang L, Liu XH. The Efficacy and Safety of the Probiotic Bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for Infantile Colic: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 28;10(10):e0141445. View abstract.
Yan DC, Hung CH, Sy LB, et al. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial Assessing the Oral Administration of a Heat-Treated Lactobacillus paracasei ?Supplement in Infants with Atopic Dermatitis Receiving Topical Corticosteroid Therapy. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2019;32(4):201-211. View abstract.
Yli-Knuuttila H, Snall J, Kari K, Meurman JH. Colonization of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the oral cavity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 2006;21:129-31. View abstract.
Zamani B, Golkar HR, Farshbaf S, et al. Clinical and metabolic response to probiotic supplementation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Int J Rheum Dis 2016;19(9):869-79. View abstract.
Zhang C, Xue S, Wang Y, et al. Oral administration of Lactobacillus casei Shirota improves recovery of hand functions after distal radius fracture among elder patients: a placebo-controlled, double-blind, and randomized trial. J Orthop Surg Res. 2019;14(1):257. View abstract.
Zhang J, Ma S, Wu S, Guo C, Long S, Tan H. Effects of Probiotic Supplement in Pregnant Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Diabetes Res. 2019;2019:5364730. View abstract.
Zhao M, Shen C, Ma L. Treatment efficacy of probiotics on atopic dermatitis, zooming in on infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Dermatol. 2018 Jun;57(6):635-641. View abstract.
Zheng J, Wittouch S, Salvetti E, et al. A Taxonomic Note on the Genus Lactobacillus: Description of 23 Novel Genera, Emended Description of the Genus Lactobacillus Beijerinck 1901, and Union of Lactobacillaceae and Leuconostocaceae. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2020 Apr 15. doi:10.1099/ijsem.0.004107. View abstract.
Zheng X, Lyu L, Mei Z. Lactobacillus-containing probiotic supplementation increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rate: evidence from a meta-analysis. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2013;105(8):445-53. Review. View abstract.
Select a condition to view a list of vitamins
You Might Also Like
CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.
This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2020.