Ajenuz, Aranuel, Baraka, Black Cumin, Black Cumin Seed Oil, Black Caraway, Charnuska, Cheveux de Vénus, Cominho Negro, Comino Negro, Cumin Noir, Cyah Dane, Fennel Flower, Fitch, Graine de Nigelle, Graine Noire, Habatul Sauda, Kalajaji, Kalajira, Kalonji, La Grainer Noire, Love in a Mist, Mugrela, Nielle, Nigella sativa, Nigelle de Crête, Nigelle Cultivée, Nutmeg Flower, Poivrette, Roman-Coriander, Schwarzkummel, Siyah Dane, Shoniz, Small Fennel, Toute Épice, Upakuncika.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBlack seed is a plant. People have used the seed to make medicine for over 2000 years. It was even discovered in the tomb of King Tut.
Historically, black seed has been used for headache, toothache, nasal congestion, asthma, arthritis, and intestinal worms. It has also been used for "pink eye" (conjunctivitis), pockets of infection (abscesses), and parasites.
Today, black seed is most commonly used for asthma, diabetes, hypertension, and many other conditions.
How does it work?There is some scientific evidence to suggest that black seed might help boost the immune system, fight cancer, prevent pregnancy, reduce swelling, and lessen allergic reactions by acting as an antihistamine, but there isn't enough information in humans yet.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Asthma. Research shows that taking black seed by mouth along with asthma medicines can improve coughing, wheezing, and lung function in some people with asthma. But it seems to work only in people with very low lung function before treatment. And it does not seem to work as well as the drugs theophylline or salbutamol.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking black seed powder can improve blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Black seed might also improve levels of cholesterol in people with diabetes. Doses of 2 grams daily seem to be needed for any benefit.
- High blood pressure. Research shows that taking black seed by mouth might reduce blood pressure by a small amount.
- To improve sperm function. Research shows that taking black seed oil increases the number of sperm and how quickly they move in men with infertility.
- Breast pain (mastalgia). Research shows that applying a gel containing black seed oil to the breasts during the menstrual cycle reduces pain in women with breast pain.
Insufficient Evidence for
- A type of leukemia (acute lymphoblastic leukemia). Taking black seed while being treated for this type of cancer might increase the chances of staying cancer-free once treatment ends. But it doesn’t improve overall survival.
- Hay fever (allergic rhinitis). Early research suggests that taking black seed oil by mouth daily might improve allergy symptoms in people with hay fever.
- Itchy and inflamed skin (eczema). Early research suggests that taking black seed oil by mouth might improve symptoms in people with itchy and inflamed skin. But applying black seed oil ointment to the skin does not seem to help.
- A disease that attacks the thyroid (autoimmune thyroiditis). . Taking black seed might improve some but not all measures of thyroid function in people with a disease called Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
- Dry nose. Early research shows that using a nasal spray containing black seed oil can reduce dryness, blockage, and crusting of the nostrils in elderly patients with nasal irritation.
- Indigestion. Taking a product containing black seed oil, honey, and water seems to reduce symptoms of indigestion. It’s unclear if this improvement is due to black seed or other ingredients.
- Seizures (epilepsy). Early research shows that taking black seed extract by mouth reduces the number of seizures in children with epilepsy. But taking black seed oil does not seem to work.
- Stomach ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori (H pylori infectoin). Some research shows that taking black seed powder along with the drug omeprazole might help eliminate a certain bacteria (H. pylori) in the stomach that can cause stomach ulcers. But not all doses seem to work.
- Hepatitis C. Some research shows that taking black seed powder along with the drug omeprazole might help eliminate a certain bacteria (H. pylori) in the stomach that can cause stomach ulcers. But not all doses seem to work.
- High cholesterol. Some early research shows that taking crushed black seed increases "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reduces total cholesterol, "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood fats called triglycerides in people with borderline high cholesterol. Other research shows that taking both crushed black seed and garlic oil in addition to other products that lower cholesterol, such as simvastatin, can lead to larger improvements in blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels than simvastatin alone. However, not all research agrees.
- Metabolic syndrome. Early research suggests that taking a specific black seed oil product twice daily for 6 weeks might reduce total cholesterol, "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Methotrexate toxicity. Early research shows that taking black seed might reduce liver damage caused by a certain drug used to treat cancer in children with a type of leukemia.
- Relieving symptoms related to opioid withdrawal. Early research shows that taking black seed extract by mouth three times daily for 12 days might reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that applying black seed oil to the knee for 3 weeks can help relieve knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.
- Rheumatoid arthritis. Early research shows that taking black seed oil improves pain and stiffness in people with rheumatoid arthritis who are already taking methotrexate.
- Sore throat and swollen tonsils (tonsillopharyngitis). Early research suggests that taking a combination of chanca piedra and black seed by mouth for 7 days relieves pain in people with sore throat and swollen tonsils.
- Birth control.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Cancer prevention.
- Digestive problems including intestinal gas and diarrhea.
- Increasing breast-milk flow.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyBlack seed, when taken by mouth in small quantities, such as a flavoring for foods, is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Black seed oil and black seed powder are POSSIBLY SAFE when medical amounts are used short-term. There isn't enough information to know if larger, medicinal quantities are safe. Black seed can cause allergic rashes when taken by mouth or applied to the skin. When taken by mouth it might cause stomach upset, vomiting, or constipation. It might increase the risk of seizures in some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. But taking larger medicinal amounts is LIKELY UNSAFE. Black seed can slow down or stop the uterus from contracting.
Not much is known about the safety of using black seed during breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Black seed oil is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth short-term and in recommended amounts.
Bleeding disorders: Black seed might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. In theory, black seed might make bleeding disorders worse.
Diabetes:Black seed might lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use black seed.
Low blood pressure: Black seed might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking black seed might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.
Surgery: Black seed might slow blood clotting, reduce blood sugar, and increase sleepiness in some people. In theory, black seed might increase the risk for bleeding and interfere with blood sugar control and anesthesia during and after surgical procedures. Stop using black seed at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for BLACK SEED Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For asthma: 2 grams of ground black seed has been used daily for 12 weeks. Also, 500 mg of black seed oil has been taken twice daily for 4 weeks. In addition, 15 mL/kg of black seed extract has been used daily for 3 months. A single dose of 50-100 mg/kg has also been used.
- For diabetes: 1 gram of black seed powder has been used twice daily for up to 12 months.
- For high blood pressure: 0.5-2 grams of black seed powder has been taken daily for up to 12 weeks. Also, 100-200 mg of black seed oil has been used twice daily for 8 weeks.
- To improve sperm function: 2.5 mL of black seed oil has been used twice daily for 2 months.
- For breast pain: A gel containing 30% black seed oil has been applied to breasts every day for two menstrual cycles.
- Abbas, A. T., Abdel-Aziz, M. M., Zalata, K. R., and Tel, Abd Al-Galel. Effect of dexamethasone and Nigella sativa on peripheral blood eosinophil count, IgG1 and IgG2a, cytokine profiles and lung inflammation in murine model of allergic asthma. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12(1):95-102. View abstract.
- Abdel-Fattah, A. M., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Antinociceptive effects of Nigella sativa oil and its major component, thymoquinone, in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol. 7-14-2000;400(1):89-97. View abstract.
- Akhondian JAV and et al. A pilot study on the effects of Nigella sativa seeds aqueous extract on paediatric intractable seizures. Epilepsia 2005;46(6):3-415.
- Akhondian, J., Parsa, A., and Rakhshande, H. The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(12):CR555-CR559. View abstract.
- Al Ghamdi, M. S. The anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activity of Nigella sativa. J Ethnopharmacol. 2001;76(1):45-48. View abstract.
- Al Jishi, S. A. and Abuo, Hozaifa B. Effect of Nigella sativa on blood hemostatic function in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;85(1):7-14. View abstract.
- Al Majed, A. A., Daba, M. H., Asiri, Y. A., Al Shabanah, O. A., Mostafa, A. A., and El Kashef, H. A. Thymoquinone-induced relaxation of guinea-pig isolated trachea. Res Commun.Mol.Pathol.Pharmacol. 2001;110(5-6):333-345. View abstract.
- Al Naggar, T. B., Gomez-Serranillos, M. P., Carretero, M. E., and Villar, A. M. Neuropharmacological activity of Nigella sativa L. extracts. J Ethnopharmacol. 2003;88(1):63-68. View abstract.
- Al Naqeep, G., Ismail, M., and Allaudin, Z. Regulation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Gene Expression by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone in HepG2 Cells. J Nutrigenet.Nutrigenomics. 10-30-2009;2(4-5):163-172. View abstract.
- al Sheikh, O. A. and Gad el-Rab, M. O. Allergic contact dermatitis: clinical features and profile of sensitizing allergens in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Dermatol. 1996;35(7):493-497. View abstract.
- Ali, B. H. and Blunden, G. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(4):299-305. View abstract.
- Ali, B. H. The effect of Nigella sativa oil on gentamicin nephrotoxicity in rats. Am.J Chin Med 2004;32(1):49-55. View abstract.
- Aljabre, S. H., Randhawa, M. A., Alakloby, O. M., and Alzahrani, A. J. Thymoquinone inhibits germination of dermatophyte arthrospores. Saudi Med J 2009;30(3):443-445. View abstract.
- Asgari S and et al. The effects of Nigella sativa on atherosclerosis and its new risk factors in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Iranian Journal of Diabetes & Lipid Disorders (IRANIAN J DIABETES LIPID DISORD) 2007;6(3):E29.
- Awad, E. M. and Binder, B. R. In vitro induction of endothelial cell fibrinolytic alterations by Nigella sativa. Phytomedicine 2005;12(3):194-202. View abstract.
- Ayaz, E., Yilmaz, H., Ozbek, H., Tas, Z., and Orunc, O. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against Aspiculuris tetraptera and Hymenolepis nana in naturally infected mice. Saudi Med J 2007;28(11):1654-1657. View abstract.
- Azza, M. M. Nadia M. M. Sohair S. Sativa seeds against
- Badary, O. A. Thymoquinone attenuates ifosfamide-induced Fanconi syndrome in rats and enhances its antitumor activity in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 11-1-1999;67(2):135-142. View abstract.
- Badary, O. A., Abdel-Naim, A. B., Abdel-Wahab, M. H., and Hamada, F. M. The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology 3-7-2000;143(3):219-226. View abstract.
- Badary, O. A., Nagi, M. N., Al Shabanah, O. A., Al Sawaf, H. A., Al Sohaibani, M. O., and Al Bekairi, A. M. Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997;75(12):1356-1361. View abstract.
- Bamosa, A. O., Ali, B. A., and al Hawsawi, Z. A. The effect of thymoquinone on blood lipids in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;46(2):195-201. View abstract.
- Bayrak, O., Bavbek, N., Karatas, O. F., Bayrak, R., Catal, F., Cimentepe, E., Akbas, A., Yildirim, E., Unal, D., and Akcay, A. Nigella sativa protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23(7):2206-2212. View abstract.
- Benhaddou-Andaloussi A and et al. Antidiabetic activity of Nigella sativa seed extract in cultured pancreatic beta-cells, skeletal muscle cells, and adipocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2010;(46):96-104.
- Boskabady MH and et al. Inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa on histamine receptors of isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2002;40:596-602.
- Boskabady, M. H. and Farhadi, J. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests on chemical war victims: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14(9):1137-1144. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Javan, H., Sajady, M., and Rakhshandeh, H. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21(5):559-566. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Keyhanmanesh, R., and Saadatloo, M. A. Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). Indian J Exp.Biol. 2008;46(12):805-810. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Mohsenpoor, N., and Takaloo, L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine 2-8-2010; View abstract.
- Dahri, A. H., Chandiol, A. M., Rahoo, A. A., and Memon, R. A. Effect of Nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2005;17(2):72-74. View abstract.
- Dirjomuljono, M., Kristyono, I., Tjandrawinata, R. R., and Nofiarny, D. Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46(6):295-306. View abstract.
- Edris, A. E. Anti-cancer properties of Nigella spp. essential oils and their major constituents, thymoquinone and beta-elemene. Curr.Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(1):43-46. View abstract.
- el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N. I., and Halim, M. A. Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(9):832-836. View abstract.
- el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. Planta Med 2002;68(5):465-466. View abstract.
- El Gazzar, M. A. Thymoquinone suppressses in vitro production of IL-5 and IL-13 by mast cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Inflamm.Res 2007;56(8):345-351. View abstract.
- El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus: effect of thymoquinone. Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(1):23-30. View abstract.
- El Obeid, A., Al Harbi, S., Al Jomah, N., and Hassib, A. Herbal melanin modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(5):324-333. View abstract.
- El Saleh, S. C., Al Sagair, O. A., and Al Khalaf, M. I. Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa oil protection against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Int J Cardiol. 2004;93(1):19-23. View abstract.
- el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1123-1131. View abstract.
- El Wakil, S. S. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2007;37(3):801-813. View abstract.
- El-Gharieb MA and et al. Potential hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E and Nigella sativa oil on hepatotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to malathion in human and male albino rats. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2010;92(2):395-412.
- Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A. N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Atoji, Y., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Mechanisms of the hypoglycaemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2004;77(2):123-129. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Ibrahim, A. K., and Elsonosy, Y. A. Thymoquinone enhances the activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of diabetic rats. Res Vet.Sci 2010;88(3):400-404. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., Ghanem, M. M., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone reduces hepatic glucose production in diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2005;79(3):219-223. View abstract.
- Fouda, A. M., Daba, M. H., Dahab, G. M., and Sharaf El-Din, O. A. Thymoquinone ameliorates renal oxidative damage and proliferative response induced by mercuric chloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(2):109-118. View abstract.
- Gali-Muhtasib, H., Diab-Assaf, M., Boltze, C., Al Hmaira, J., Hartig, R., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2004;25(4):857-866. View abstract.
- Gali-Muhtasib, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone: a promising anti-cancer drug from natural sources. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38(8):1249-1253. View abstract.
- Ghannadi, A., Hajhashemi, V., and Jafarabadi, H. An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 2005;8(4):488-493. View abstract.
- Hansen, J. T., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The role of black seed in the proliferation and biochemical marker levels of Hep-2 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:371-376. View abstract.
- Hawsawi, Z. A., Ali, B. A., and Bamosa, A. O. Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann.Saudi Med 2001;21(3-4):242-244. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Parvardeh, S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine 2004;11(1):56-64. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Nassiri-Asl, M., and Mansouri, M. T. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(4):BR106-BR110. View abstract.
- Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., and Iraz, M. Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(4):456-464. View abstract.
- Islam, S. K., Ahsan, M., Hassan, C. M., and Malek, M. A. Antifungal activities of the oils of Nigella sativa seeds. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 1989;2(1):25-28. View abstract.
- Islam, S. N., Begum, P., Ahsan, T., Huque, S., and Ahsan, M. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):395-398. View abstract.
- Jadayil, S. A., Tukan, S. K., and Takruri, H. R. Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;54(4):285-294. View abstract.
- Kaleem, M., Kirmani, D., Asif, M., Ahmed, Q., and Bano, B. Biochemical effects of Nigella sativa L seeds in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(9):745-748. View abstract.
- Kalus, U., Pruss, A., Bystron, J., Jurecka, M., Smekalova, A., Lichius, J. J., and Kiesewetter, H. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(10):1209-1214. View abstract.
- Kamal EH and et al. Some cardiovascular effects of the dethymoquinonated Nigella sativa volatile oil and its major components alpha-pinene and p-cymene in rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (Saudi Arabia). 2003;11:104-110.
- Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on sciatic nerves in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(1):87-96. View abstract.
- Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa seed extract on ameliorating lung tissue damage in rats after experimental pulmonary aspirations. Acta Histochem. 2009;111(5):393-403. View abstract.
- Kanter, M. Protective effects of thymoquinone on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(2):107-115. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Uysal, H. The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80(4):217-224. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Korkmaz, A., and Oter, S. Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Anat.Rec.A Discov.Mol.Cell Evol.Biol. 2004;279(1):685-691. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Demir, H., Karakaya, C., and Ozbek, H. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6662-6666. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Meral, I., Yener, Z., Ozbek, H., and Demir, H. Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2003;201(4):213-219. View abstract.
- Keyhanmanesh, R., Boskabady, M. H., Eslamizadeh, M. J., Khamneh, S., and Ebrahimi, M. A. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Planta Med 2010;76(3):218-222. View abstract.
- Kocyigit, Y., Atamer, Y., and Uysal, E. The effect of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. on serum lipid profile in rats. Saudi Med J 2009;30(7):893-896. View abstract.
- Kumara, S. S. and Huat, B. T. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of antitumor principle, alpha-hederin, from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Planta Med 2001;67(1):29-32. View abstract.
- Landa, P., Kokoska, L., Pribylova, M., Vanek, T., and Marsik, P. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of carvacrol: Inhibitory effect on COX-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32(1):75-78. View abstract.
- Landa, P., Marsik, P., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Vanek, T., and Kokoska, L. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of seed extracts from six Nigella species. J Med Food 2009;12(2):408-415. View abstract.
- Le, P. M., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Elimadi, A., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. The petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa exerts lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(2-3):251-259. View abstract.
- Mansour, M. and Tornhamre, S. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene C4 synthase in human blood cells by thymoquinone. J Enzyme Inhib.Med Chem. 2004;19(5):431-436. View abstract.
- Marsik, P., Kokoska, L., Landa, P., Nepovim, A., Soudek, P., and Vanek, T. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Planta Med 2005;71(8):739-742. View abstract.
- Massadeh, A. M., Al Safi, S. A., Momani, I. F., Al Mahmoud, M., and Alkofahi, A. S. Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs: effect of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2007;115(2):157-167. View abstract.
- Meddah, B., Ducroc, R., El Abbes, Faouzi M., Eto, B., Mahraoui, L., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Martineau, L. C., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-30-2009;121(3):419-424. View abstract.
- Meral, I., Yener, Z., Kahraman, T., and Mert, N. Effect of Nigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. J Vet.Med A Physiol Pathol.Clin Med 2001;48(10):593-599. View abstract.
- Nagi, M. N. and Almakki, H. A. Thymoquinone supplementation induces quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in mice liver: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Phytother.Res 2009;23(9):1295-1298. View abstract.
- Najmi, A., Nasiruddin, M., Khan, R. A., and Haque, S. F. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome. Int J Diabetes Dev.Ctries. 2008;28(1):11-14. View abstract.
- Parvardeh S and et al. Effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on the contractile responses of rat vas deferens. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2003;41:616-621.
- Perveen, T., Haider, S., Kanwal, S., and Haleem, D. J. Repeated administration of Nigella sativa decreases 5-HT turnover and produces anxiolytic effects in rats. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2009;22(2):139-144. View abstract.
- Qidwai, W., Hamza, H. B., Qureshi, R., and Gilani, A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(6):639-644. View abstract.
- Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.
- Sangi, S., Ahmed, S. P., Channa, M. A., Ashfaq, M., and Mastoi, S. M. A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):118-124. View abstract.
- Shoieb, A. M., Elgayyar, M., Dudrick, P. S., Bell, J. L., and Tithof, P. K. In vitro inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in cancer cell lines by thymoquinone. Int J Oncol. 2003;22(1):107-113. View abstract.
- Singh, B. B., Khorsan, R., Vinjamury, S. P., Der-Martirosian, C., Kizhakkeveettil, A., and Anderson, T. M. Herbal treatments of asthma: a systematic review. J Asthma 2007;44(9):685-698. View abstract.
- Steinmann, A., Schatzle, M., Agathos, M., and Breit, R. Allergic contact dermatitis from black cumin (Nigella sativa) oil after topical use. Contact Dermatitis 1997;36(5):268-269. View abstract.
- Stern T and et al. Black seed oil ointment - A new approach for the treatment of atopic dermatitis? Aktuelle Dermatologie 2002;28(3):74-79.
- Tauseef, Sultan M., Butt, M. S., and Anjum, F. M. Safety assessment of black cumin fixed and essential oil in normal Sprague Dawley rats: Serological and hematological indices. Food Chem.Toxicol. 2009;47(11):2768-2775. View abstract.
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- Vahdati-Mashhadian, N., Rakhshandeh, H., and Omidi, A. An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice. Pharmazie 2005;60(7):544-547. View abstract.
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- Yildiz, F., Coban, S., Terzi, A., Savas, M., Bitiren, M., Celik, H., and Aksoy, N. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against ischemia-reperfusion injury of kidneys. Ren Fail. 2010;32(1):126-131. View abstract.
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- Zaoui, A., Cherrah, Y., Lacaille-Dubois, M. A., Settaf, A., Amarouch, H., and Hassar, M. [Diuretic and hypotensive effects of Nigella sativa in the spontaneously hypertensive rat]. Therapie 2000;55(3):379-382. View abstract.
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- Ahmad Alobaidi AH. Effect of nigella sativa and allium sativum coadministered with simvastatin in dyslipidemia patients: a prospective, randomized, double-blind trial. Antiinflamm Antiallergy Agents Med Chem. 2014 Mar;13(1):68-74. View abstract.
- Akhtar MS, Riffat S. Field trial of Saussurea lappa roots against nematodes and Nigella sativa seeds against cestodes in children. J Pak Med Assoc 1991;41:185-7. View abstract.
- Al-Jenoobi FI, Al-Suwayeh SA, Muzaffar I, et al. Effects of Nigella sativa and Lepidium sativum on cyclosporine pharmacokinetics. Biomed Res Int 2013;2013:953520. View abstract.
- Aqel M, Shaheen R. Effects of the volatile oil of black seed seeds on the uterine smooth muscle of rat and guinea pig. J Ethnopharmacol 1996;52:23-6. View abstract.
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- Badar A, Kaatabi H, Bamosa A, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation over a one-year period on lipid levels, blood pressure and heart rate in type-2 diabetic patients receiving oral hypoglycemic agents: nonrandomized clinical trial. Ann Saudi Med 2017;37:56-63. View abstract.
- Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, et al. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur J Cancer Prev 1999;8:435-40. View abstract.
- Bamosa AO, Kaatabi H, Lebdaa FM, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010;54:344-54. View abstract.
- Barakat EM, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS. Effects of nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr 28;19(16):2529-36. View abstract.
- Bonhomme A, Poreaux C, Jouen F, et al. Bullous drug eruption to Nigella sativa oil: Consideration of the use of a herbal medicine - clinical report and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017;31:e217-e219. View abstract.
- Chakravarty N. Inhibition of histamine release from mast cells by nigellone. Ann Allergy 1993;70:237-42. View abstract.
- Daba MH, Abdel-Rahman MS. Hepatoprotective activity of thymoquinone in isolated rat hepatocytes. Toxicol Lett 1998;95:23-9. View abstract.
- Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF. Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008;22:447-52. View abstract.
- Farhangi MA, Dehghan P, Tajmiri S, Abbasi MM. The effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:471. View abstract.
- Farzaneh E, Nia FR, Mehrtash M, Mirmoeini FS, Jalilvand M. The effects of 8-week nigella sativa supplementation and aerobic training on lipid profile and VO2 max in sedentary overweight females. Int J Prev Med. 2014 Feb;5(2):210-16. View abstract.
- Gheita TA, Kenawy SA. Effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a placebo controlled study. Phytother Res 2012;26:1246-8. View abstract.
- Hagag AA, AbdElaal AM, Elfaragy MS, Hassan SM, Elzamarany EA. Therapeutic value of black seed oil in methotrexate hepatotoxicity in Egyptian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(1):64-71. View abstract.
- Hanafy MS, Hatem ME. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Black seed seed (black cumin). J Ethnopharmacol 1991;34:275-8. View abstract.
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- Haqqaq EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC. The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:41-54. View abstract.
- Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR. Fixed oil of Black seed and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1995;61:33-6. View abstract.
- Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Mirshamsi MH, Zarch AB. Effectiveness of topical Nigella sativa seed oil in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia: A randomized, triple-blind, active, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med 2016;82:285-8. View abstract.
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- Kaatabi H, Bamosa AO, Badar A, et al. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial. PLoS One 2015;10:e0113486. View abstract.
- Keshri G, Singh MM, Lakshmi V, Kamboj VP. Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Black seed in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39:59-62. View abstract.
- Kolahdooz M, Nasri S, Modarres SZ, et al. Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2014;21:901-5. View abstract.
- Kooshki A, Forouzan R, Rakhshani MH, Mohammadi M. Effect of topical application of nigella sativa oil and oral acetaminophen on pain in elderly with knee osteoarthritis: a crossover clinical trial. Electron Physician. 2016 Nov 25;8(11):3193-97. View abstract.
- Koshak A, Wei L, Koshak E, et al. Nigella sativa supplementation improves asthma control and biomarkers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Mar;31(3):403-9. View abstract.
- Medenica RD. Use of Black seed to increase immune function. U.S. Patent 5,482,711, issued January 9, 1996. Obtained from US Patent and Trademark Ofc on April 12, 2000. www.uspto.gov/patft/index.htm.
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- Muneera KE, Majeed A, Naveed AK. Comparative evaluation of nigella sativa (Kalonji) and simvastatin for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and in the induction of hepatotoxicity. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015 Mar;28(2):493-8. View abstract.
- Nagi MN, Alam K, Badary OA, et al. Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1999;47:153-9. View abstract.
- Nikakhlagh S, Rahim F, Aryani FH, Syahpoush A, Brougerdnya MG, Saki N. Herbal treatment of allergic rhinitis: the use of nigella sativa. Am J Otolaryngol. 2011 Sep-Oct;32(5):402-7. View abstract.
- Oysu C, Tosun A, Yilmaz HB, Sahin-Yilmaz A, Korkmaz D, Karaaslan A. Topical nigella sativa for nasal symptoms in elderly. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2014 Jun;41(3):269-72. View abstract.
- Perveen T, Haider S, Zuberi NA, et al. Increased 5-HT levels following repeated administration of Nigella sativa L. (Black Seed) oil produce antidepressant effects in rats. Sci Pharm 2013;82:161-70. View abstract.
- Sabzghabaee AM, Dianatkhah M, Sarrafzadegan N, et al. Clinical evaluation of Nigella sativa seeds for the treatment of hyperlipidemia: a randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial. Medicinski Arhiv 2012;66(3):198-200. View abstract.
- Sahebkar A, Soranna D, Liu X, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials investigating the effects of supplementation with Nigella sativa (black seed) on blood pressure. J Hypertens 2016;34:2127-35. View abstract.
- Salem AM, Bamosa AO, Qutub HO, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on lung function and inflammatory mediatorsin partly controlled asthma: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Saudi Med 2017;37:64-71. View abstract.
- Salem EM, Yar T, Bamosa AO, et al. Comparative study of nigella sativa and triple therapy in eradication of helicobacter pylori in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia. Saudi J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jul-Sep;16(3):207-14. View abstract.
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- Shawki M, El Wakeel L, Shatla R, et al. The clinical outcome of adjuvant therapy with black seed oil on intractable paediatric seizures: a pilot study. Epileptic Disord 2013;15:295-301. View abstract.
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