Ajenuz, Aranuel, Baraka, Black Cumin, Black Cumin Seed Oil, Black Caraway, Charnuska, Cheveux de Vénus, Cominho Negro, Comino Negro, Cumin Noir, Cyah Dane, Fennel Flower, Fitch, Graine de Nigelle, Graine Noire, Habatul Sauda, Habbatul Baraka, Kalajaji, Kalajira, Kalonji, Ketsah, La Grainer Noire, Love in a Mist, Mugrela, Nielle, Nigella sativa, Nigelle de Crête, Nigelle Cultivée, Nutmeg Flower, Poivrette, Roman-Coriander, Schwarzkummel, Seed of Blessing, Siyah Dane, Shoniz, Small Fennel, Toute Épice, Upakuncika.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBlack seed is a plant. People have used the seed to make medicine for over 2000 years. It was even discovered in the tomb of King Tut.
Historically, black seed has been used for headache, toothache, nasal congestion, asthma, arthritis, and intestinal worms. It has also been used for "pink eye" (conjunctivitis), pockets of infection (abscesses), and parasites.
Today, black seed is most commonly used for asthma, diabetes, hypertension, weight loss, and other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support most of these uses.
How does it work?There is some scientific evidence to suggest that black seed might help boost the immune system, fight cancer, prevent pregnancy, reduce swelling, and lessen allergic reactions by acting as an antihistamine, but there isn't enough information in humans yet.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Asthma. Research shows that taking black seed by mouth along with asthma medicines can improve coughing, wheezing, and lung function in some people with asthma. But it seems to work only in people with very low lung function before treatment. And it does not seem to work as well as the drugs theophylline or salbutamol.
- Diabetes. Early research shows that taking black seed powder can improve blood sugar levels in people with diabetes. Black seed might also improve levels of cholesterol in people with diabetes. Doses of 2 grams daily seem to be needed for any benefit.
- High blood pressure. Research shows that taking black seed by mouth might reduce blood pressure by a small amount.
- Conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility). Research shows that taking black seed oil increases the number of sperm and how quickly they move in men with infertility.
- Breast pain (mastalgia). Research shows that applying a gel containing black seed oil to the breasts during the menstrual cycle reduces pain in women with breast pain.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Hay fever. Early research suggests that taking black seed oil by mouth daily might improve allergy symptoms in people with hay fever.
- Eczema (atopic dermatitis). Early research suggests that taking black seed oil by mouth might improve symptoms in people with itchy and inflamed skin. But applying black seed oil ointment to the skin does not seem to help.
- A disease that causes underactive thyroid (autoimmune thyroiditis). Taking black seed might improve some but not all measures of thyroid function in people with a disease called Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
- Damage to the immune system caused by cancer drug treatment. Early research shows that taking black seed ass part of the diet while undergoing cancer drug treatment might prevent fever episodes due to low white blood cell counts (neutropenia) in children.
- Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early research shows that black seed helps with some but not all measures of memory and attention in boys and men. It's unknown if black seed improves memory and thinking skills in girls and women.
- Indigestion (dyspepsia). Taking a product containing black seed oil, honey, and water seems to reduce symptoms of indigestion. It's unclear if this improvement is due to black seed or other ingredients.
- Seizure disorder (epilepsy). Early research shows that taking black seed extract by mouth reduces the number of seizures in children with epilepsy. But taking black seed oil does not seem to work.
- A digestive tract infection that can lead to ulcers (Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori). Some research shows that taking black seed powder along with the drug omeprazole might help eliminate a certain bacterium (H. pylori) in the stomach that can cause stomach ulcers. But not all doses seem to work.
- Hepatitis C. Early research shows that taking black seed oil daily for 3 months reduces viral load in people with hepatitis C. It also seems to reduce lower limb swelling. But it doesn't seem to improve liver function.
- High cholesterol. Some early research shows that taking crushed black seed increases "good" high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reduces total cholesterol, "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood fats called triglycerides in people with borderline high cholesterol. Other research shows that taking both crushed black seed and garlic oil in addition to other products that lower cholesterol, such as simvastatin, can lead to larger improvements in blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels than simvastatin alone. However, not all research agrees.
- Cancer of the white blood cells (leukemia). Taking black seed while being treated for a type of leukemia called acute lymphoblastic leukemia might increase the chances of staying cancer-free once treatment ends. But it doesn't improve overall survival.
- A grouping of symptoms that increase the risk of diabetes, heart disease, and stroke (metabolic syndrome). Early research suggests that taking a specific black seed oil product twice daily for 6 weeks might reduce total cholesterol, "bad" low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and blood sugar levels in people with metabolic syndrome.
- Toxicity caused by the drug methotrexate. Early research shows that taking black seed might reduce liver damage caused by a certain drug used to treat cancer in children with a type of leukemia.
- Build up of fat in the liver in people who drink little or no alcohol (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or NAFLD). Early research shows that taking black seed oil daily for 3 months can improve some measures of liver disease in patients with NAFLD.
- Obesity. Some research shows that taking black seed oil or powder might improve weight loss by a small amount in people who are obese or overweight. But other research shows no benefit. Studies are generally small and low-quality, so more research is needed.
- Withdrawal from heroin, morphine, and other opioid drugs. Early research shows that taking black seed extract by mouth three times daily for 12 days might reduce symptoms of opioid withdrawal.
- Osteoarthritis. Early research shows that applying black seed oil to the knee for 3-4 weeks can help relieve knee pain caused by osteoarthritis.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Early research shows that taking black seed oil improves pain and stiffness in people with RA who are already taking methotrexate.
- Dry nose in the elderly. Early research shows that using a nasal spray containing black seed oil can reduce dryness, blockage, and crusting of the nostrils in elderly patients with nasal irritation.
- Infection of the throat and tonsils (tonsillopharyngitis). Early research suggests that taking a combination of chanca piedra and black seed by mouth for 7 days relieves pain in people with tonsillopharyngitis.
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Early research shows that taking black seed powder daily for 6 weeks does not improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis.
- Birth control.
- Boosting the immune system.
- Cancer prevention.
- Digestive problems including intestinal gas and diarrhea.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Symptoms of menopause.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: When taken in small quantities, such as a flavoring for foods, black seed is LIKELY SAFE for most people. Black seed oil and black seed powder are POSSIBLY SAFE when the larger amounts found in medicine are used for 3 months or less. There isn't enough reliable information to know if the amounts found in medicine are safe when used for more than 3 months. Black seed can cause allergic rashes in some people. It can also cause stomach upset, vomiting, or constipation. It might increase the risk of seizures in some people.
When applied to the skin: Black seed oil or gel is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin, short-term. It can cause allergic rashes in some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Black seed seems to be safe in food amounts during pregnancy. But taking the larger amounts found in medicine is LIKELY UNSAFE. Black seed can slow down or stop the uterus from contracting.
There isn't enough reliable information to know if black seed is safe to use when breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Children: Black seed oil is POSSIBLY SAFE for children when taken by mouth short-term and in recommended amounts.
Bleeding disorders: Black seed might slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding. In theory, black seed might make bleeding disorders worse.
Diabetes: Black seed might lower blood sugar levels in some people. Watch for signs of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and monitor your blood sugar carefully if you have diabetes and use black seed.
Low blood pressure: Black seed might lower blood pressure. In theory, taking black seed might make blood pressure become too low in people with low blood pressure.
Surgery: Black seed might slow blood clotting, reduce blood sugar, and increase sleepiness in some people. In theory, black seed might increase the risk for bleeding and interfere with blood sugar control and anesthesia during and after surgical procedures. Stop using black seed at least two weeks before a scheduled surgery.
We currently have no information for BLACK SEED Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For asthma: 2 grams of ground black seed has been used daily for 12 weeks. Also, 500 mg of black seed oil has been taken twice daily for 4 weeks. In addition, 15 mL/kg of black seed extract has been used daily for 3 months. A single dose of 50-100 mg/kg has also been used.
- For diabetes: 1 gram of black seed powder has been used twice daily for up to 12 months.
- For high blood pressure: 0.5-2 grams of black seed powder has been taken daily for up to 12 weeks. Also, 100-200 mg or 2.5 mL of black seed oil has been used twice daily for 8 weeks.
- For conditions in a man that prevent him from getting a woman pregnant within a year of trying to conceive (male infertility): 2.5 mL of black seed oil has been used twice daily for 2 months.
- For breast pain (mastalgia): A gel containing 30% black seed oil has been applied to breasts every day for two menstrual cycles.
- Meral, I., Yener, Z., Kahraman, T., and Mert, N. Effect of Nigella sativa on glucose concentration, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant defence system and liver damage in experimentally-induced diabetic rabbits. J Vet.Med A Physiol Pathol.Clin Med 2001;48(10):593-599. View abstract.
- Nagi, M. N. and Almakki, H. A. Thymoquinone supplementation induces quinone reductase and glutathione transferase in mice liver: possible role in protection against chemical carcinogenesis and toxicity. Phytother.Res 2009;23(9):1295-1298. View abstract.
- Najmi, A., Nasiruddin, M., Khan, R. A., and Haque, S. F. Effect of Nigella sativa oil on various clinical and biochemical parameters of insulin resistance syndrome. Int J Diabetes Dev.Ctries. 2008;28(1):11-14. View abstract.
- Parvardeh S and et al. Effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, on the contractile responses of rat vas deferens. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2003;41:616-621.
- Perveen, T., Haider, S., Kanwal, S., and Haleem, D. J. Repeated administration of Nigella sativa decreases 5-HT turnover and produces anxiolytic effects in rats. Pak.J Pharm.Sci 2009;22(2):139-144. View abstract.
- Qidwai, W., Hamza, H. B., Qureshi, R., and Gilani, A. Effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of powdered Nigella sativa (kalonji) seed in capsules on serum lipid levels, blood sugar, blood pressure, and body weight in adults: results of a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2009;15(6):639-644. View abstract.
- Reiter, M. and Brandt, W. Relaxant effects on tracheal and ileal smooth muscles of the guinea pig. Arzneimittelforschung. 1985;35(1A):408-414. View abstract.
- Sangi, S., Ahmed, S. P., Channa, M. A., Ashfaq, M., and Mastoi, S. M. A new and novel treatment of opioid dependence: Nigella sativa 500 mg. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2008;20(2):118-124. View abstract.
- Shoieb, A. M., Elgayyar, M., Dudrick, P. S., Bell, J. L., and Tithof, P. K. In vitro inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in cancer cell lines by thymoquinone. Int J Oncol. 2003;22(1):107-113. View abstract.
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- Vahdati-Mashhadian, N., Rakhshandeh, H., and Omidi, A. An investigation on LD50 and subacute hepatic toxicity of Nigella sativa seed extracts in mice. Pharmazie 2005;60(7):544-547. View abstract.
- Vance, S. H., Benghuzzi, H., Wilson-Simpson, F., and Tucci, M. Thymoquinone supplementation and its effect on kidney tubule epithelial cells in vitro. Biomed.Sci Instrum. 2008;44:477-482. View abstract.
- Yildiz, F., Coban, S., Terzi, A., Savas, M., Bitiren, M., Celik, H., and Aksoy, N. Protective effects of Nigella sativa against ischemia-reperfusion injury of kidneys. Ren Fail. 2010;32(1):126-131. View abstract.
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- Badary OA, Al-Shabanah OA, Nagi MN, et al. Inhibition of benzo(a)pyrene-induced forestomach carcinogenesis in mice by thymoquinone. Eur J Cancer Prev 1999;8:435-40. View abstract.
- Bamosa AO, Kaatabi H, Lebdaa FM, et al. Effect of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010;54:344-54. View abstract.
- Barakat EM, El Wakeel LM, Hagag RS. Effects of nigella sativa on outcome of hepatitis C in Egypt. World J Gastroenterol. 2013 Apr 28;19(16):2529-36. View abstract.
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- Bin Sayeed MS, Shams T, Fahim Hossain S, et al. Nigella sativa L. seeds modulate mood, anxiety and cognition in healthy adolescent males. J Ethnopharmacol. 2014;152(1):156-62. View abstract.
- Bonhomme A, Poreaux C, Jouen F, et al. Bullous drug eruption to Nigella sativa oil: Consideration of the use of a herbal medicine - clinical report and review of the literature. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2017;31:e217-e219. View abstract.
- Busari AA, Adejare AA, Shodipe AF, Oduniyi OA, Ismail-Badmus KB, Oreagba IA. Protective but Non-Synergistic Effects of Nigella Sativa and Vitamin E against Cisplatin-Induced Renal Toxicity and Oxidative Stress in Wistar Rats. Drug Res (Stuttg). 2018 Dec;68(12):696-703. View abstract.
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- Dajani EZ, Shahwan TG, Dajani NE. Overview of the preclinical pharmacological properties of Nigella sativa (black seeds): a complementary drug with historical and clinical significance. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2016;67(6):801-817. View abstract.
- Datau EA, Wardhana, Surachmanto EE, Pandelaki K, Langi JA, Fias. Efficacy of Nigella sativa on serum free testosterone and metabolic disturbances in central obese male. Acta Med Indones. 2010;42(3):130-4. View abstract.
- Dehavay F, Kolivras A, Scheers C. Local and systemic adverse skin reactions following the use of herbal products believed to contain Nigella sativa seeds and oil. Contact Dermatitis. 2019 Mar;80(3):176-177. View abstract.
- Dehkordi FR, Kamkhah AF. Antihypertensive effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in patients with mild hypertension. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 2008;22:447-52. View abstract.
- Fallah Huseini H, Amini M, Mohtashami R, et al. Blood pressure lowering effect of Nigella sativa L. seed oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytother Res. 2013;27(12):1849-53. View abstract.
- Farhangi MA, Dehghan P, Tajmiri S, Abbasi MM. The effects of Nigella sativa on thyroid function, serum Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) - 1, Nesfatin-1 and anthropometric features in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Complement Altern Med 2016;16:471. View abstract.
- Farzaneh E, Nia FR, Mehrtash M, Mirmoeini FS, Jalilvand M. The effects of 8-week nigella sativa supplementation and aerobic training on lipid profile and VO2 max in sedentary overweight females. Int J Prev Med. 2014 Feb;5(2):210-16. View abstract.
- Gheita TA, Kenawy SA. Effectiveness of Nigella sativa oil in the management of rheumatoid arthritis patients: a placebo controlled study. Phytother Res 2012;26:1246-8. View abstract.
- Hagag AA, AbdElaal AM, Elfaragy MS, Hassan SM, Elzamarany EA. Therapeutic value of black seed oil in methotrexate hepatotoxicity in Egyptian children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2015;15(1):64-71. View abstract.
- Hanafy MS, Hatem ME. Studies on the antimicrobial activity of Black seed seed (black cumin). J Ethnopharmacol 1991;34:275-8. View abstract.
- Haq A, Abdullatif M, Lobo PI, et al. Black seed: effect on human lymphocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocyte phagocytic activity. Immunopharmacology 1995;30:147-55. View abstract.
- Haqqaq EG, Abou-Moustafa MA, Boucher W, Theoharides TC. The effect of a herbal water-extract on histamine release from mast cells and on allergic asthma. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:41-54. View abstract.
- Houghton PJ, Zarka R, de las Heras B, Hoult JR. Fixed oil of Black seed and derived thymoquinone inhibit eicosanoid generation in leukocytes and membrane lipid peroxidation. Planta Med 1995;61:33-6. View abstract.
- Huseini HF, Kianbakht S, Mirshamsi MH, Zarch AB. Effectiveness of topical Nigella sativa seed oil in the treatment of cyclic mastalgia: A randomized, triple-blind, active, and placebo-controlled clinical trial. Planta Med 2016;82:285-8. View abstract.
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- Kaatabi H, Bamosa AO, Badar A, et al. Nigella sativa improves glycemic control and ameliorates oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: placebo controlled participant blinded clinical trial. PLoS One 2015;10:e0113486. View abstract.
- Keshri G, Singh MM, Lakshmi V, Kamboj VP. Post-coital contraceptive efficacy of the seeds of Black seed in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 1995;39:59-62. View abstract.
- Khonche A, Huseini HF, Gholamian M, Mohtashami R, Nabati F, Kianbakht S. Standardized Nigella sativa seed oil ameliorates hepatic steatosis, aminotransferase and lipid levels in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2019 Apr 24;234:106-111. View abstract.
- Kolahdooz M, Nasri S, Modarres SZ, et al. Effects of Nigella sativa L. seed oil on abnormal semen quality in infertile men: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytomedicine 2014;21:901-5. View abstract.
- Kooshki A, Forouzan R, Rakhshani MH, Mohammadi M. Effect of topical application of nigella sativa oil and oral acetaminophen on pain in elderly with knee osteoarthritis: a crossover clinical trial. Electron Physician. 2016 Nov 25;8(11):3193-97. View abstract.
- Koshak A, Wei L, Koshak E, et al. Nigella sativa supplementation improves asthma control and biomarkers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Phytother Res. 2017 Mar;31(3):403-9. View abstract.
- Mahdavi R, Namazi N, Alizadeh M, Farajnia S. Effects of Nigella sativa oil with a low-calorie diet on cardiometabolic risk factors in obese women: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Food Funct. 2015;6(6):2041-8. View abstract.
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- Mohtashami R, Huseini HF, Heydari M, et al. Efficacy and safety of honey based formulation of Nigella sativa seed oil in functional dyspepsia: A double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. J Ethnopharmacol 2015;175:147-52. View abstract.
- Molaie M, Darvishi B, Jafari Azar Z, Shirazi M, Amin G, Afshar S. Effects of a combination of Nigella sativa and Vitex agnus-castus with citalopram on healthy menopausal women with hot flashes: results from a subpopulation analysis. Gynecol Endocrinol. 2019 Jan;35(1):58-61. View abstract.
- Mousa HFM, Abd-El-Fatah NK, Darwish OA, Shehata SF, Fadel SH. Effect of Nigella sativa seed administration on prevention of febrile neutropenia during chemotherapy among children with brain tumors. Childs Nerv Syst. 2017;33(5):793-800. View abstract.
- Mousavi SM, Sheikhi A, Varkaneh HK, Zarezadeh M, Rahmani J, Milajerdi A. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation on obesity indices: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Med. 2018;38:48-57. View abstract.
- Muneera KE, Majeed A, Naveed AK. Comparative evaluation of nigella sativa (Kalonji) and simvastatin for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and in the induction of hepatotoxicity. Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015 Mar;28(2):493-8. View abstract.
- Nagi MN, Alam K, Badary OA, et al. Thymoquinone protects against carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice via an antioxidant mechanism. Biochem Mol Biol Int 1999;47:153-9. View abstract.
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- Nikkhah-Bodaghi M, Darabi Z, Agah S, Hekmatdoost A. The effects of Nigella sativa on quality of life, disease activity index, and some of inflammatory and oxidative stress factors in patients with ulcerative colitis. Phytother Res. 2019 Apr;33(4):1027-1032. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6296. Epub 2019 Jan 22. View abstract.
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- Abbas, A. T., Abdel-Aziz, M. M., Zalata, K. R., and Tel, Abd Al-Galel. Effect of dexamethasone and Nigella sativa on peripheral blood eosinophil count, IgG1 and IgG2a, cytokine profiles and lung inflammation in murine model of allergic asthma. Egypt J Immunol. 2005;12(1):95-102. View abstract.
- Abdel-Fattah, A. M., Matsumoto, K., and Watanabe, H. Antinociceptive effects of Nigella sativa oil and its major component, thymoquinone, in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol. 7-14-2000;400(1):89-97. View abstract.
- Akhondian JAV and et al. A pilot study on the effects of Nigella sativa seeds aqueous extract on paediatric intractable seizures. Epilepsia 2005;46(6):3-415.
- Akhondian, J., Parsa, A., and Rakhshande, H. The effect of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin seed) on intractable pediatric seizures. Med Sci Monit. 2007;13(12):CR555-CR559. View abstract.
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- Al Naqeep, G., Ismail, M., and Allaudin, Z. Regulation of Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor and 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase Gene Expression by Thymoquinone-Rich Fraction and Thymoquinone in HepG2 Cells. J Nutrigenet.Nutrigenomics. 10-30-2009;2(4-5):163-172. View abstract.
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- Badary, O. A., Abdel-Naim, A. B., Abdel-Wahab, M. H., and Hamada, F. M. The influence of thymoquinone on doxorubicin-induced hyperlipidemic nephropathy in rats. Toxicology 3-7-2000;143(3):219-226. View abstract.
- Badary, O. A., Nagi, M. N., Al Shabanah, O. A., Al Sawaf, H. A., Al Sohaibani, M. O., and Al Bekairi, A. M. Thymoquinone ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by cisplatin in rodents and potentiates its antitumor activity. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997;75(12):1356-1361. View abstract.
- Bamosa, A. O., Ali, B. A., and al Hawsawi, Z. A. The effect of thymoquinone on blood lipids in rats. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2002;46(2):195-201. View abstract.
- Bayrak, O., Bavbek, N., Karatas, O. F., Bayrak, R., Catal, F., Cimentepe, E., Akbas, A., Yildirim, E., Unal, D., and Akcay, A. Nigella sativa protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 2008;23(7):2206-2212. View abstract.
- Benhaddou-Andaloussi A and et al. Antidiabetic activity of Nigella sativa seed extract in cultured pancreatic beta-cells, skeletal muscle cells, and adipocytes. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands) 2010;(46):96-104.
- Boskabady MH and et al. Inhibitory effect of Nigella sativa on histamine receptors of isolated guinea pig tracheal chains. Pharmaceutical Biology (Netherlands). 2002;40:596-602.
- Boskabady, M. H. and Farhadi, J. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed aqueous extract on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function tests on chemical war victims: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern.Complement Med 2008;14(9):1137-1144. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Javan, H., Sajady, M., and Rakhshandeh, H. The possible prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in asthmatic patients. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol. 2007;21(5):559-566. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Keyhanmanesh, R., and Saadatloo, M. A. Relaxant effects of different fractions from Nigella sativa L. on guinea pig tracheal chains and its possible mechanism(s). Indian J Exp.Biol. 2008;46(12):805-810. View abstract.
- Boskabady, M. H., Mohsenpoor, N., and Takaloo, L. Antiasthmatic effect of Nigella sativa in airways of asthmatic patients. Phytomedicine 2-8-2010; View abstract.
- Dahri, A. H., Chandiol, A. M., Rahoo, A. A., and Memon, R. A. Effect of Nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats. J Ayub.Med Coll.Abbottabad. 2005;17(2):72-74. View abstract.
- Dirjomuljono, M., Kristyono, I., Tjandrawinata, R. R., and Nofiarny, D. Symptomatic treatment of acute tonsillo-pharyngitis patients with a combination of Nigella sativa and Phyllanthus niruri extract. Int J Clin Pharmacol.Ther 2008;46(6):295-306. View abstract.
- Edris, A. E. Anti-cancer properties of Nigella spp. essential oils and their major constituents, thymoquinone and beta-elemene. Curr.Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(1):43-46. View abstract.
- el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N. I., and Halim, M. A. Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforschung. 2000;50(9):832-836. View abstract.
- el Dakhakhny, M., Mady, N., Lembert, N., and Ammon, H. P. The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa oil is mediated by extrapancreatic actions. Planta Med 2002;68(5):465-466. View abstract.
- El Gazzar, M. A. Thymoquinone suppressses in vitro production of IL-5 and IL-13 by mast cells in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation. Inflamm.Res 2007;56(8):345-351. View abstract.
- El Mahmoudy, A., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Matsuyama, H., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Macrophage-derived cytokine and nitric oxide profiles in type I and type II diabetes mellitus: effect of thymoquinone. Acta Diabetol. 2005;42(1):23-30. View abstract.
- El Obeid, A., Al Harbi, S., Al Jomah, N., and Hassib, A. Herbal melanin modulates tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production. Phytomedicine. 2006;13(5):324-333. View abstract.
- El Saleh, S. C., Al Sagair, O. A., and Al Khalaf, M. I. Thymoquinone and Nigella sativa oil protection against methionine-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. Int J Cardiol. 2004;93(1):19-23. View abstract.
- el Tahir, K. E., Ashour, M. M., and al Harbi, M. M. The cardiovascular actions of the volatile oil of the black seed (Nigella sativa) in rats: elucidation of the mechanism of action. Gen.Pharmacol. 1993;24(5):1123-1131. View abstract.
- El Wakil, S. S. Evaluation of the in vitro effect of Nigella sativa aqueous extract on Blastocystis hominis isolates. J Egypt Soc.Parasitol. 2007;37(3):801-813. View abstract.
- El-Gharieb MA and et al. Potential hepatoprotective effects of vitamin E and Nigella sativa oil on hepatotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to malathion in human and male albino rats. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 2010;92(2):395-412.
- Enomoto, S., Asano, R., Iwahori, Y., Narui, T., Okada, Y., Singab, A. N., and Okuyama, T. Hematological studies on black cumin oil from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. Biol.Pharm.Bull 2001;24(3):307-310. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Atoji, Y., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., and Takewaki, T. Mechanisms of the hypoglycaemic and immunopotentiating effects of Nigella sativa L. oil in streptozotocin-induced diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2004;77(2):123-129. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Ibrahim, A. K., and Elsonosy, Y. A. Thymoquinone enhances the activities of enzymes related to energy metabolism in peripheral leukocytes of diabetic rats. Res Vet.Sci 2010;88(3):400-404. View abstract.
- Fararh, K. M., Shimizu, Y., Shiina, T., Nikami, H., Ghanem, M. M., and Takewaki, T. Thymoquinone reduces hepatic glucose production in diabetic hamsters. Res Vet.Sci 2005;79(3):219-223. View abstract.
- Fouda, A. M., Daba, M. H., Dahab, G. M., and Sharaf El-Din, O. A. Thymoquinone ameliorates renal oxidative damage and proliferative response induced by mercuric chloride in rats. Basic Clin Pharmacol.Toxicol. 2008;103(2):109-118. View abstract.
- Gali-Muhtasib, H., Diab-Assaf, M., Boltze, C., Al Hmaira, J., Hartig, R., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone extracted from black seed triggers apoptotic cell death in human colorectal cancer cells via a p53-dependent mechanism. Int J Oncol. 2004;25(4):857-866. View abstract.
- Gali-Muhtasib, H., Roessner, A., and Schneider-Stock, R. Thymoquinone: a promising anti-cancer drug from natural sources. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2006;38(8):1249-1253. View abstract.
- Ghannadi, A., Hajhashemi, V., and Jafarabadi, H. An investigation of the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seed polyphenols. J Med Food 2005;8(4):488-493. View abstract.
- Hansen, J. T., Benghuzzi, H., Tucci, M., and Cason, Z. The role of black seed in the proliferation and biochemical marker levels of Hep-2 cells. Biomed.Sci.Instrum. 2003;39:371-376. View abstract.
- Hawsawi, Z. A., Ali, B. A., and Bamosa, A. O. Effect of Nigella sativa (Black Seed) and thymoquinone on blood glucose in albino rats. Ann.Saudi Med 2001;21(3-4):242-244. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H. and Parvardeh, S. Anticonvulsant effects of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, in mice. Phytomedicine 2004;11(1):56-64. View abstract.
- Hosseinzadeh, H., Parvardeh, S., Nassiri-Asl, M., and Mansouri, M. T. Intracerebroventricular administration of thymoquinone, the major constituent of Nigella sativa seeds, suppresses epileptic seizures in rats. Med Sci Monit. 2005;11(4):BR106-BR110. View abstract.
- Ilhan, A., Gurel, A., Armutcu, F., Kamisli, S., and Iraz, M. Antiepileptogenic and antioxidant effects of Nigella sativa oil against pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling in mice. Neuropharmacology 2005;49(4):456-464. View abstract.
- Islam, S. N., Begum, P., Ahsan, T., Huque, S., and Ahsan, M. Immunosuppressive and cytotoxic properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother.Res. 2004;18(5):395-398. View abstract.
- Jadayil, S. A., Tukan, S. K., and Takruri, H. R. Bioavailability of iron from four different local food plants in Jordan. Plant Foods Hum.Nutr. 1999;54(4):285-294. View abstract.
- Kaleem, M., Kirmani, D., Asif, M., Ahmed, Q., and Bano, B. Biochemical effects of Nigella sativa L seeds in diabetic rats. Indian J Exp.Biol. 2006;44(9):745-748. View abstract.
- Kalus, U., Pruss, A., Bystron, J., Jurecka, M., Smekalova, A., Lichius, J. J., and Kiesewetter, H. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother.Res. 2003;17(10):1209-1214. View abstract.
- Kamal EH and et al. Some cardiovascular effects of the dethymoquinonated Nigella sativa volatile oil and its major components alpha-pinene and p-cymene in rats. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal (Saudi Arabia). 2003;11:104-110.
- Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on sciatic nerves in experimental diabetic neuropathy. Neurochem.Res 2008;33(1):87-96. View abstract.
- Kanter, M. Effects of Nigella sativa seed extract on ameliorating lung tissue damage in rats after experimental pulmonary aspirations. Acta Histochem. 2009;111(5):393-403. View abstract.
- Kanter, M. Protective effects of thymoquinone on streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy. J Mol.Histol. 2009;40(2):107-115. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Coskun, O., and Uysal, H. The antioxidative and antihistaminic effect of Nigella sativa and its major constituent, thymoquinone on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. Arch Toxicol. 2006;80(4):217-224. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Coskun, O., Korkmaz, A., and Oter, S. Effects of Nigella sativa on oxidative stress and beta-cell damage in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Anat.Rec.A Discov.Mol.Cell Evol.Biol. 2004;279(1):685-691. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Demir, H., Karakaya, C., and Ozbek, H. Gastroprotective activity of Nigella sativa L oil and its constituent, thymoquinone against acute alcohol-induced gastric mucosal injury in rats. World J Gastroenterol. 11-14-2005;11(42):6662-6666. View abstract.
- Kanter, M., Meral, I., Yener, Z., Ozbek, H., and Demir, H. Partial regeneration/proliferation of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans by Nigella sativa L. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Tohoku J Exp.Med 2003;201(4):213-219. View abstract.
- Keyhanmanesh, R., Boskabady, M. H., Eslamizadeh, M. J., Khamneh, S., and Ebrahimi, M. A. The effect of thymoquinone, the main constituent of Nigella sativa on tracheal responsiveness and white blood cell count in lung lavage of sensitized guinea pigs. Planta Med 2010;76(3):218-222. View abstract.
- Kocyigit, Y., Atamer, Y., and Uysal, E. The effect of dietary supplementation of Nigella sativa L. on serum lipid profile in rats. Saudi Med J 2009;30(7):893-896. View abstract.
- Kumara, S. S. and Huat, B. T. Extraction, isolation and characterisation of antitumor principle, alpha-hederin, from the seeds of Nigella sativa. Planta Med 2001;67(1):29-32. View abstract.
- Landa, P., Kokoska, L., Pribylova, M., Vanek, T., and Marsik, P. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of carvacrol: Inhibitory effect on COX-2 catalyzed prostaglandin E(2) biosynthesis. Arch Pharm.Res 2009;32(1):75-78. View abstract.
- Landa, P., Marsik, P., Havlik, J., Kloucek, P., Vanek, T., and Kokoska, L. Evaluation of antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of seed extracts from six Nigella species. J Med Food 2009;12(2):408-415. View abstract.
- Le, P. M., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Elimadi, A., Settaf, A., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. The petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa exerts lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions in the rat. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004;94(2-3):251-259. View abstract.
- Mansour, M. and Tornhamre, S. Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase and leukotriene C4 synthase in human blood cells by thymoquinone. J Enzyme Inhib.Med Chem. 2004;19(5):431-436. View abstract.
- Marsik, P., Kokoska, L., Landa, P., Nepovim, A., Soudek, P., and Vanek, T. In vitro inhibitory effects of thymol and quinones of Nigella sativa seeds on cyclooxygenase-1- and -2-catalyzed prostaglandin E2 biosyntheses. Planta Med 2005;71(8):739-742. View abstract.
- Massadeh, A. M., Al Safi, S. A., Momani, I. F., Al Mahmoud, M., and Alkofahi, A. S. Analysis of cadmium and lead in mice organs: effect of Nigella sativa L. (Black Cumin) on the distribution and immunosuppressive effect of cadmium-lead mixture in mice. Biol.Trace Elem.Res 2007;115(2):157-167. View abstract.
- Meddah, B., Ducroc, R., El Abbes, Faouzi M., Eto, B., Mahraoui, L., Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A., Martineau, L. C., Cherrah, Y., and Haddad, P. S. Nigella sativa inhibits intestinal glucose absorption and improves glucose tolerance in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-30-2009;121(3):419-424. View abstract.
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