Brazilian Cocoa, Cacao Brésilien, Guarana Seed Extract, Guaranine, Paullinia cupana, Paullinia sorbilis, Zoom.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationGuarana is a plant. It is named for the Guarani tribe in the Amazon, who used its seeds to brew a drink. Today, guarana seeds are still used as medicine.
People take guarana by mouth for obesity, athletic performance, mental performance, to increase energy, as an aphrodisiac, and for many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support these uses. Guarana can also be unsafe when taken long-term in large amounts.
How does it work?Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine works by stimulating the central nervous system (CNS), heart, and muscles. Guarana also contains theophylline and theobromine, which are chemicals similar to caffeine.
Uses & Effectiveness
Insufficient Evidence for
- Anxiety. Early research shows that taking a product containing hawthorn, black horehound, passionflower, valerian, cola nut, and guarana can reduce anxiety in some people. It is not clear if guarana alone is beneficial.
- Lack of appetite in people with cancer. Early research shows that taking guarana extract slightly improves appetite and prevents weight loss in people with cancer who have lost their appetite and are losing weight. But the benefit is very small.
- Tiredness in people treated with cancer drugs. Some research shows that taking guarana can reduce feelings of tiredness in some people undergoing chemotherapy. But conflicting results exist.
- Improving memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early research in healthy people shows that taking a single dose of guarana extract can improve thinking speed and some aspects of memory. However, other research shows that taking guarana does not improve mental function in adults or older people.
- Athletic performance. Research shows that taking a single dose of a product containing guarana, B vitamins, vitamin C, and minerals improves exercise tolerance in trained athletes by a very small amount. It is not clear if guarana alone is beneficial.
- Obesity. Taking guarana along with mate and damiana seems to increase weight loss. There is also developing evidence that taking a specific combination product containing guarana, ephedra, and 17 other vitamins, minerals, and supplements helps reduce weight by approximately 2.7 kg over 8 weeks when used with a low-fat diet and exercise. It is not clear if guarana alone is beneficial.
- Feelings of well-being. Early research shows that taking guarana does not improve feelings of well-being in healthy individuals.
- Serious illness caused by radiation exposure. Research shows that taking guarana does not improve symptoms of depression or tiredness in people undergoing radiation treatment.
- Athletic performance.
- Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).
- Fluid retention.
- Heart disease.
- Increasing sexual desire in healthy people.
- Low blood pressure.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea).
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Guarana is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken in amounts commonly found in foods. When taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for a short time, guarana is POSSIBLY SAFE.
When taken by mouth in high doses for a long time, guarana is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Guarana contains caffeine. Doses containing more than 400 mg of caffeine daily have been linked to side effects. Side effects depend on the dose. At typical doses, the caffeine in guarana can cause insomnia, nervousness and restlessness, stomach irritation, nausea, vomiting, increased heart rate and blood pressure, rapid breathing, tremors, delirium, diuresis, and other side effects. Large guarana doses might cause headache, anxiety, agitation, ringing in the ears, pain when urinating, stomach cramps, and irregular heartbeats. People who take guarana regularly may experience caffeine withdrawal symptoms if they reduce their usual dose.
When taken by mouth or injected in very high doses, guarana is LIKELY UNSAFE and even deadly, due to its caffeine content. The fatal dose of caffeine is estimated to be 10-14 grams. Serious poisoning can also occur at lower doses, depending on an individual's caffeine sensitivity or smoking behavior, age, and prior caffeine use.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Guarana is POSSIBLY SAFE for pregnant and breast feeding women when taken in amounts commonly found in foods. If you are pregnant or breast-feeding, guarana should be taken with caution due to the caffeine content. Small amounts are probably not harmful. However, taking guarana in high doses by mouth is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine daily has been linked to an increased risk of miscarriage and other negative effects.
In women who are nursing, caffeine passes into breast milk and can affect a nursing infant. Nursing mothers should closely monitor caffeine intake to make sure it is on the low side. High intake of caffeine by nursing mothers can cause sleep problems, irritability, and increased bowel activity in breast-fed infants.
Anxiety: The caffeine in guarana might make feelings of anxiety worse.
Bleeding disorders: There is some evidence suggesting that the caffeine in guarana might make bleeding disorders worse, although this has not been reported in people. If you have a bleeding disorder, check with your healthcare provider before starting guarana.
Diabetes: Some research suggests that the caffeine in guarana may affect the way people with diabetes process sugar (glucose) and may complicate blood sugar control. There is also some interesting research that suggests caffeine may enhance the warning symptoms of low blood sugar in patients with type 1 diabetes. Some studies show that the symptoms of low blood sugar are more intense when they start in the absence of caffeine, but as low blood sugar continues, symptoms are greater with caffeine. This might increase the ability of diabetic patients to detect and treat low blood sugar. However, the downside is that caffeine might actually increase the number of low-sugar episodes. If you have diabetes, talk with your healthcare provider before starting guarana.
Diarrhea. Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea.
Seizures. Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana might increase the risk of seizures and reduce the benefits of many medications used to control seizures. If you have seizures, talk to your healthcare provider before using guarana.
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana, especially when taken in large amounts, can worsen diarrhea and might worsen the diarrhea some people have with IBS.
Heart disease: The caffeine in guarana might cause irregular heartbeat in certain people. Use with caution.
High blood pressure: Taking guarana might raise blood pressure, in people with high blood pressure due to its caffeine content. However, this effect might be less in people who are regular coffee-drinkers or otherwise use caffeine on a regular basis.
Glaucoma: The caffeine in guarana increases the pressure inside the eye. The increase occurs within 30 minutes and lasts for at least 90 minutes after drinking caffeinated beverages.
Bladder control problems (Incontinence): Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana might reduce bladder control, especially in older women. If you need to urinate often with high urgency, use guarana cautiously.
Osteoporosis: The caffeine in guarana can flush calcium out of the body through the kidneys. This calcium loss might weaken bones. If you have osteoporosis, don't consume more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Taking calcium supplements may also help to replace any lost calcium. If you are generally healthy and getting enough calcium from your food or supplements, taking up to 400 mg of caffeine per day doesn't seem to increase the risk of getting osteoporosis.
Schizophrenia: Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana might make some symptoms of schizophrenia worse. If you have schizophrenia, use guarana cautiously.
Do not take this combination
Amphetamines interacts with GUARANA
Stimulant drugs such as amphetamines speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and increase your heart rate. The caffeine in guarana might also speed up the nervous system. Taking guarana along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with caffeine.
Cocaine interacts with GUARANA
Stimulant drugs such as cocaine speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and increase your heart rate. The caffeine in guarana might also speed up the nervous system. Taking guarana along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with caffeine.
Ephedrine interacts with GUARANA
Stimulant drugs speed up the nervous system. Caffeine (contained in guarana) and ephedrine are both stimulant drugs. Taking guarana along with ephedrine might cause too much stimulation and sometimes serious side effects and heart problems. Do not take caffeine-containing products and ephedrine at the same time.
Be cautious with this combination
Adenosine (Adenocard) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana might block the affects of adenosine (Adenocard). Adenosine (Adenocard) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop consuming guarana or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.
Antibiotics (Quinolone antibiotics) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Some antibiotics might decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking these antibiotics along with guarana can increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heart rate, and other side effects.<br/><br/> Some antibiotics that decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine include ciprofloxacin (Cipro), enoxacin (Penetrex), norfloxacin (Chibroxin, Noroxin), sparfloxacin (Zagam), trovafloxacin (Trovan), and grepafloxacin (Raxar).
Cimetidine (Tagamet) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Cimetidine (Tagamet) can decrease how quickly your body breaks down caffeine. Taking cimetidine (Tagamet) along with guarana might increase the chance of caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and others.
Clozapine (Clozaril) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril) to get rid of it. The caffeine in guarana seems to decrease how quickly the body breaks down clozapine (Clozaril). Taking guarana along with clozapine (Clozaril) can increase the effects and side effects of clozapine (Clozaril).
Dipyridamole (Persantine) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. The caffeine in guarana might block the affects of dipyridamole (Persantine). Dipyridamole (Persantine) is often used by doctors to do a test on the heart. This test is called a cardiac stress test. Stop consuming guarana or other caffeine-containing products at least 24 hours before a cardiac stress test.
Disulfiram (Antabuse) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Disulfiram (Antabuse) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Taking guarana (which contains caffeine) along with disulfiram (Antabuse) might increase the effects and side effects of caffeine including jitteriness, hyperactivity, irritability, and others.
Estrogens interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down the caffeine in guarana to get rid of it. Estrogens can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking guarana along with estrogens can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects. If you take estrogens limit your caffeine intake.<br/><br/> Some estrogen pills include conjugated equine estrogens (Premarin), ethinyl estradiol, estradiol, and others.
Fluvoxamine (Luvox) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down the caffeine in guarana to get rid of it. Fluvoxamine (Luvox) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking guarana along with fluvoxamine (Luvox) might cause too much caffeine in the body, and increase the effects and side effects of caffeine.
Lithium interacts with GUARANA
You body naturally gets rid of lithium. The caffeine in guarana can increase how quickly your body gets rid of lithium. If you take products that contain caffeine and you take lithium, stop taking caffeine products slowly. Stopping caffeine too quickly can increase the side effects of lithium.
Medications for depression (MAOIs) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine can stimulate the body. Some medications used for depression can also stimulate the body. Taking guarana with these medications used for depression might cause serious side effects including fast heartbeat, high blood pressure, nervousness, and others.<br/><br/> Some of these medications used for depression include phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine might slow blood clotting. Taking guarana along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
Nicotine interacts with GUARANA
Stimulant drugs such as nicotine speed up the nervous system. By speeding up the nervous system, stimulant medications can make you feel jittery and increase your heart rate. The caffeine in guarana might also speed up the nervous system. Taking guarana along with stimulant drugs might cause serious problems including increased heart rate and high blood pressure. Avoid taking stimulant drugs along with caffeine.
Pentobarbital (Nembutal) interacts with GUARANA
The stimulant effects of the caffeine in guarana can block the sleep-producing effects of pentobarbital.
Phenylpropanolamine interacts with GUARANA
The caffeine in guarana can stimulate the body. Phenylpropanolamine can also stimulate the body. Taking guarana along with phenylpropanolamine might cause too much stimulation and increase heartbeat, blood pressure and cause nervousness.
Riluzole (Rilutek) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek) to get rid of it. Taking guarana can decrease how fast the body breaks down riluzole (Rilutek) and increase the effects and side effects of riluzole.
Theophylline interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. Caffeine works similarly to theophylline. Caffeine can also decrease how quickly the body gets rid of theophylline. Taking guarana along with theophylline might increase the effects and side effects of theophylline.
Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down the caffeine in guarana to get rid of it. Verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine. Taking guarana along with verapamil (Calan, Covera, Isoptin, Verelan) can increase the risk of caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, and an increased heartbeat.
Be watchful with this combination
Alcohol interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down the caffeine in guarana to get rid of it. Alcohol can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking guarana along with alcohol might cause too much caffeine in the bloodstream and caffeine side effects including jitteriness, headache, and fast heartbeat.
Birth control pills (Contraceptive drugs) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down the caffeine in guarana to get rid of it. Birth control pills can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking guarana along with birth control pills can cause jitteriness, headache, fast heartbeat, and other side effects.<br/><br/> Some birth control pills include ethinyl estradiol and levonorgestrel (Triphasil), ethinyl estradiol and norethindrone (Ortho-Novum 1/35, Ortho-Novum 7/7/7), and others.
Fluconazole (Diflucan) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Fluconazole (Diflucan) might decrease how quickly the body gets rid of caffeine Taking guarana along with fluconazole (Diflucan) might increase the risk of caffeine side effects such as nervousness, anxiety, and insomnia.
Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana might increase blood sugar. Diabetes medications are used to lower blood sugar. By increasing blood sugar, guarana might decrease the effectiveness of diabetes medications. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.<br/><br/> Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.
Mexiletine (Mexitil) interacts with GUARANA
Guarana contains caffeine. The body breaks down caffeine to get rid of it. Mexiletine (Mexitil) can decrease how quickly the body breaks down caffeine. Taking mexiletine (Mexitil) along with guarana might increase the caffeine effects and side effects of guarana.
Terbinafine (Lamisil) interacts with GUARANA
The body breaks down caffeine (contained in guarana) to get rid of it. Terbinafine (Lamisil) can decrease how fast the body gets rid of caffeine and increase the risk of side effects including jitteriness, headache, increased heartbeat, and other effects.
The appropriate dose of guarana depends on several factors such as the user's age, health, and several other conditions. At this time there is not enough scientific information to determine an appropriate range of doses for guarana. Keep in mind that natural products are not always necessarily safe and dosages can be important. Be sure to follow relevant directions on product labels and consult your pharmacist or physician or other healthcare professional before using.
- Arnold, M. E., Petros, T. V., Beckwith, B. E., Coons, G., and Gorman, N. The effects of caffeine, impulsivity, and sex on memory for word lists. Physiol Behav. 1987;41(1):25-30. View abstract.
- Arya, L. A., Myers, D. L., and Jackson, N. D. Dietary caffeine intake and the risk for detrusor instability: a case-control study. Obstet.Gynecol. 2000;96(1):85-89. View abstract.
- Astrup, A., Toubro, S., Cannon, S., Hein, P., Breum, L., and Madsen, J. Caffeine: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of its thermogenic, metabolic, and cardiovascular effects in healthy volunteers. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1990;51(5):759-767. View abstract.
- Avato, P., Pesante, M. A., Fanizzi, F. P., and Santos, C. A. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke. Lipids 2003;38(7):773-780. View abstract.
- Baghkhani, L. and Jafari, M. Cardiovascular adverse reactions associated with Guarana: is there a causal effect? J.Herb.Pharmacother. 2002;2(1):57-61. View abstract.
- Barbour, K. E., Zmuda, J. M., Strotmeyer, E. S., Horwitz, M. J., Boudreau, R., Evans, R. W., Ensrud, K. E., Petit, M. A., Gordon, C. L., and Cauley, J. A. Correlates of trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density of the radius and tibia in older men: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study. J Bone Miner.Res 2010;25(5):1017-1028. View abstract.
- Belliardo, F., Martelli, A., and Valle, M. G. HPLC determination of caffeine and theophylline in Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Cola spp. samples. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1985;180(5):398-401. View abstract.
- Bempong DK, Houghton PJ, and Steadman K. The xanthine content of guarana and its preparations. Int J Pharmacog 1993;31(3):175-181.
- Benoni, H., Dallakian, P., and Taraz, K. Studies on the essential oil from guarana. Z.Lebensm.Unters.Forsch. 1996;203(1):95-98. View abstract.
- Blanchard, J. and Sawers, S. J. Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly men. J Pharmacokinet.Biopharm. 1983;11(2):109-126. View abstract.
- Blanchard, J. and Sawers, S. J. The absolute bioavailability of caffeine in man. Eur.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 1983;24(1):93-98. View abstract.
- Brice C and Smith A. The effects of caffeine on simulated driving, subjective alertness and sustained attention. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp 2001;16(7):523-531.
- Bryant, C. M., Dowell, C. J., and Fairbrother, G. Caffeine reduction education to improve urinary symptoms. Br.J.Nurs. 4-25-2002;11(8):560-565. View abstract.
- Buscemi, S., Verga, S., Batsis, J. A., Donatelli, M., Tranchina, M. R., Belmonte, S., Mattina, A., Re, A., and Cerasola, G. Acute effects of coffee on endothelial function in healthy subjects. Eur.J Clin Nutr. 2010;64(5):483-489. View abstract.
- Bydlowski, S. P., D'Amico, E. A., and Chamone, D. A. An aqueous extract of guarana (Paullinia cupana) decreases platelet thromboxane synthesis. Braz.J.Med.Biol.Res. 1991;24(4):421-424. View abstract.
- Bydlowski, S. P., Yunker, R. L., and Subbiah, M. T. A novel property of an aqueous guarana extract (Paullinia cupana): inhibition of platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo. Braz.J.Med.Biol.Res. 1988;21(3):535-538. View abstract.
- Caballero, T., Garcia-Ara, C., Pascual, C., Diaz-Pena, J. M., and Ojeda, A. Urticaria induced by caffeine. J.Investig.Allergol.Clin Immunol. 1993;3(3):160-162. View abstract.
- Chamone, D. A., Silva, M. I., Cassaro, C., Bellotti, G., Massumoto, C. M., and Fujimura, A. Y. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana) inhibits aggregation in whole blood. Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1987;58(1):474.
- Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Ratnaraj, N., Patsalos, P. N., and Czuczwar, S. J. Effect of caffeine on the anticonvulsant effects of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine and tiagabine in a mouse model of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(5):819-826. View abstract.
- Clausen, T. Hormonal and pharmacological modification of plasma potassium homeostasis. Fundam.Clin Pharmacol 2010;24(5):595-605. View abstract.
- Conlisk, A. J. and Galuska, D. A. Is caffeine associated with bone mineral density in young adult women?. Prev.Med. 2000;31(5):562-568. View abstract.
- Curatolo, P. W. and Robertson, D. The health consequences of caffeine. Ann.Intern.Med. 1983;98(5 Pt 1):641-653. View abstract.
- de Oliveira, J. F., Avila, A. S., Braga, A. C., de Oliveira, M. B., Boasquevisque, E. M., Jales, R. L., Cardoso, V. N., and Bernardo-Filho, M. Effect of extract of medicinal plants on the labeling of blood elements with Technetium-99m and on the morphology of red blood cells: I--a study with Paullinia cupana. Fitoterapia 2002;73(4):305-312. View abstract.
- Debrah, K., Haigh, R., Sherwin, R., Murphy, J., and Kerr, D. Effect of acute and chronic caffeine use on the cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and hormonal responses to orthostasis in healthy volunteers. Clin Sci (Colch.) 1995;89(5):475-480. View abstract.
- Drew AK and Dawson AH. Herbal xtreme: acute toxicity associated with intravenous guarana [abstract]. Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology 2000;38(2):235-236.
- du, Boisgueheneuc F., Lannuzel, A., Caparros-Lefebvre, D., and De Broucker, T. [Cerebral infarction in a patient consuming MaHuang extract and guarana]. Presse Med 2-3-2001;30(4):166-167. View abstract.
- Ernest, D., Chia, M., and Corallo, C. E. Profound hypokalaemia due to Nurofen Plus and Red Bull misuse. Crit Care Resusc. 2010;12(2):109-110. View abstract.
- Galduroz, J. C. and Carlini, E. A. The effects of long-term administration of guarana on the cognition of normal, elderly volunteers. Sao Paulo Med.J. 1996;114(1):1073-1078. View abstract.
- Galduroz, J. C. and Carlini, Ede A. Acute effects of the Paulinia cupana, "Guarana" on the cognition of normal volunteers. Sao Paulo Med.J. 1994;112(3):607-611. View abstract.
- Grant, D. M., Tang, B. K., and Kalow, W. Variability in caffeine metabolism. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1983;33(5):591-602. View abstract.
- Haller, C. A., Jacob, P., and Benowitz, N. L. Short-term metabolic and hemodynamic effects of ephedra and guarana combinations. Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 2005;77(6):560-571. View abstract.
- Hansen, S. A., Folsom, A. R., Kushi, L. H., and Sellers, T. A. Association of fractures with caffeine and alcohol in postmenopausal women: the Iowa Women's Health Study. Public Health Nutr. 2000;3(3):253-261. View abstract.
- Jamal, S. A., Swan, V. J., Brown, J. P., Hanley, D. A., Prior, J. C., Papaioannou, A., Langsetmo, L., and Josse, R. G. Kidney function and rate of bone loss at the hip and spine: the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. Am J Kidney Dis. 2010;55(2):291-299. View abstract.
- Jha, R. M., Mithal, A., Malhotra, N., and Brown, E. M. Pilot case-control investigation of risk factors for hip fractures in the urban Indian population. BMC.Musculoskelet.Disord. 2010;11:49. View abstract.
- Kennedy, D. O., Haskell, C. F., Wesnes, K. A., and Scholey, A. B. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2004;79(3):401-411. View abstract.
- Keuchel, I., Kohnen, R., and Lienert, G. A. The effects of alcohol and caffeine on concentration test performance. Arzneimittelforschung. 1979;29(6):973-975. View abstract.
- Khodesevick AP. Fatal caffeine poisoning (case from practice). Farmakol Toksikol 1956;19(suppl):62.
- Lloyd, T., Rollings, N., Eggli, D. F., Kieselhorst, K., and Chinchilli, V. M. Dietary caffeine intake and bone status of postmenopausal women. Am.J.Clin.Nutr. 1997;65(6):1826-1830. View abstract.
- MacKenzie, T., Comi, R., Sluss, P., Keisari, R., Manwar, S., Kim, J., Larson, R., and Baron, J. A. Metabolic and hormonal effects of caffeine: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Metabolism 2007;56(12):1694-1698. View abstract.
- Marx, F. and et al. Analysis of guaraná (
- Mattei, R., Dias, R. F., Espinola, E. B., Carlini, E. A., and Barros, S. B. Guarana (Paullinia cupana): toxic behavioral effects in laboratory animals and antioxidants activity in vitro. J.Ethnopharmacol. 1998;60(2):111-116. View abstract.
- Moisey, L. L., Robinson, L. E., and Graham, T. E. Consumption of caffeinated coffee and a high carbohydrate meal affects postprandial metabolism of a subsequent oral glucose tolerance test in young, healthy males. Br.J Nutr. 2010;103(6):833-841. View abstract.
- Morano, A., Jimenez-Jimenez, F. J., Molina, J. A., and Antolin, M. A. Risk-factors for Parkinson's disease: case-control study in the province of Caceres, Spain. Acta Neurol.Scand 1994;89(3):164-170. View abstract.
- Orozco-Gregorio, H., Mota-Rojas, D., Bonilla-Jaime, H., Trujillo-Ortega, M. E., Becerril-Herrera, M., Hernandez-Gonzalez, R., and Villanueva-Garcia, D. Effects of administration of caffeine on metabolic variables in neonatal pigs with peripartum asphyxia. Am.J Vet.Res. 2010;71(10):1214-1219. View abstract.
- Pappa, H. M., Saslowsky, T. M., Filip-Dhima, R., DiFabio, D., Lahsinoui, H. H., Akkad, A., Grand, R. J., and Gordon, C. M. Efficacy and harms of nasal calcitonin in improving bone density in young patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(8):1527-1543. View abstract.
- Parsons, W. D. and Neims, A. H. Effect of smoking on caffeine clearance. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1978;24(1):40-45. View abstract.
- Parsons, W. D. and Pelletier, J. G. Delayed elimination of caffeine by women in the last 2 weeks of pregnancy. Can.Med.Assoc.J 9-1-1982;127(5):377-380. View abstract.
- Pola, J., Subiza, J., Armentia, A., Zapata, C., Hinojosa, M., Losada, E., and Valdivieso, R. Urticaria caused by caffeine. Ann.Allergy 1988;60(3):207-208. View abstract.
- Quirce, G. S., Freire, P., Fernandez, R. M., Davila, I., and Losada, E. Urticaria from caffeine. J.Allergy Clin Immunol. 1991;88(4):680-681. View abstract.
- Rejent T, Michalek R, and Krajewski M. Caffeine fatality with coincident ephedrine. Bull Int Assoc Forensic Toxicol 1981;16:18-19.
- Rigato, I., Blarasin, L., and Kette, F. Severe hypokalemia in 2 young bicycle riders due to massive caffeine intake. Clin J Sport Med. 2010;20(2):128-130. View abstract.
- Robelin, M. and Rogers, P. J. Mood and psychomotor performance effects of the first, but not of subsequent, cup-of-coffee equivalent doses of caffeine consumed after overnight caffeine abstinence. Behav.Pharmacol 1998;9(7):611-618. View abstract.
- Roberts, A. T., Jonge-Levitan, L., Parker, C. C., and Greenway, F. The effect of an herbal supplement containing black tea and caffeine on metabolic parameters in humans. Altern Med Rev 2005;10(4):321-325. View abstract.
- Robertson, D., Frolich, J. C., Carr, R. K., Watson, J. T., Hollifield, J. W., Shand, D. G., and Oates, J. A. Effects of caffeine on plasma renin activity, catecholamines and blood pressure. N.Engl.J Med. 1-26-1978;298(4):181-186. View abstract.
- Rogers, P. J. and Dernoncourt, C. Regular caffeine consumption: a balance of adverse and beneficial effects for mood and psychomotor performance. Pharmacol Biochem.Behav. 1998;59(4):1039-1045. View abstract.
- Ryall JE. Caffeine and ephedrine fatality. Bull Int Assoc Forensic Toxicol 1984;17:13.
- Salvadori, M. C., Rieser, E. M., Ribeiro Neto, L. M., and Nascimento, E. S. Determination of xanthines by high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography in horse urine after ingestion of Guarana powder. Analyst 1994;119(12):2701-2703. View abstract.
- Sicard, B. A., Perault, M. C., Enslen, M., Chauffard, F., Vandel, B., and Tachon, P. The effects of 600 mg of slow release caffeine on mood and alertness. Aviat.Space Environ.Med. 1996;67(9):859-862. View abstract.
- Simmonds, M. J., Minahan, C. L., and Sabapathy, S. Caffeine improves supramaximal cycling but not the rate of anaerobic energy release. Eur.J Appl Physiol 2010;109(2):287-295. View abstract.
- Smith, A. P., Kendrick, A. M., and Maben, A. L. Effects of breakfast and caffeine on performance and mood in the late morning and after lunch. Neuropsychobiology 1992;26(4):198-204. View abstract.
- Smits, P., Corstens, F. H., Aengevaeren, W. R., Wackers, F. J., and Thien, T. False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion. J Nucl.Med. 1991;32(8):1538-1541. View abstract.
- Stein, M. A., Krasowski, M., Leventhal, B. L., Phillips, W., and Bender, B. G. Behavioral and cognitive effects of methylxanthines. A meta-analysis of theophylline and caffeine. Arch.Pediatr.Adolesc.Med. 1996;150(3):284-288. View abstract.
- Tassaneeyakul, W., Birkett, D. J., McManus, M. E., Tassaneeyakul, W., Veronese, M. E., Andersson, T., Tukey, R. H., and Miners, J. O. Caffeine metabolism by human hepatic cytochromes P450: contributions of 1A2, 2E1 and 3A isoforms. Biochem.Pharmacol 5-18-1994;47(10):1767-1776. View abstract.
- Waugh, E. J., Lam, M. A., Hawker, G. A., McGowan, J., Papaioannou, A., Cheung, A. M., Hodsman, A. B., Leslie, W. D., Siminoski, K., and Jamal, S. A. Risk factors for low bone mass in healthy 40-60 year old women: a systematic review of the literature. Osteoporos.Int. 2009;20(1):1-21. View abstract.
- Wrenn, K. D. and Oschner, I. Rhabdomyolysis induced by a caffeine overdose. Ann.Emerg.Med. 1989;18(1):94-97. View abstract.
- Yu, G., Maskray, V., Jackson, S. H., Swift, C. G., and Tiplady, B. A comparison of the central nervous system effects of caffeine and theophylline in elderly subjects. Br.J Clin Pharmacol 1991;32(3):341-345. View abstract.
- Abernethy DR, Todd EL. Impairment of caffeine clearance by chronic use of low-dose oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1985;28:425-8. View abstract.
- Acheson KJ, Gremaud G, Meirim I, et al. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: lipid oxidation or futile cycling? Am J Clin Nutr 2004;79:40-6. View abstract.
- Ali M, Afzal M. A potent inhibitor of thrombin stimulated platelet thromboxane formation from unprocessed tea. Prostaglandins Leukot Med 1987;27:9-13. View abstract.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 2001;108:776-89. View abstract.
- Andersen T, Fogh J. Weight loss and delayed gastric emptying following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients. J Hum Nutr Diet 2001;14:243-50. View abstract.
- Aqel RA, Zoghbi GJ, Trimm JR, et al. Effect of caffeine administered intravenously on intracoronary-administered adenosine-induced coronary hemodynamics in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:343-6. View abstract.
- Ardlie NG, Glew G, Schultz BG, Schwartz CJ. Inhibition and reversal of platelet aggregation by methyl xanthines. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 1967;18:670-3. View abstract.
- Avisar R, Avisar E, Weinberger D. Effect of coffee consumption on intraocular pressure. Ann Pharmacother 2002;36:992-5.. View abstract.
- Bara AI, Barley EA. Caffeine for asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001;4:CD001112.. View abstract.
- Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. Effect of caffeine and ephedrine ingestion on anaerobic exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2001;33:1399-403. View abstract.
- Benowitz NL, Osterloh J, Goldschlager N, et al. Massive catecholamine release from caffeine poisoning. JAMA 1982;248:1097-8. View abstract.
- Boozer CN, Nasser JA, Heymsfield SB, et al. An herbal supplement containing Ma Huang-Guarana for weight loss: a randomized, double-blind trial. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 2001;25:316-24. View abstract.
- Bourin M, Bougerol T, Guitton B, Broutin E. A combination of plant extracts in the treatment of outpatients with adjustment disorder with anxious mood: controlled study vs placebo. Fundam Clin Pharmacol 1997;11:127-32. View abstract.
- Bracken MB, Triche EW, Belanger K, et al. Association of maternal caffeine consumption with decrements in fetal growth. Am J Epidemiol 2003;157:456-66.. View abstract.
- Breum L, Pedersen JK, Ahlstrom F, et al. Comparison of an ephedrine/caffeine combination and dexfenfluramine in the treatment of obesity. A double-blind multi-centre trial in general practice. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 1994;18:99-103. View abstract.
- Briggs GB, Freeman RK, Yaffe SJ. Drugs in Pregnancy and Lactation. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 1998.
- Brown NJ, Ryder D, Branch RA. A pharmacodynamic interaction between caffeine and phenylpropanolamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1991;50:363-71. View abstract.
- Cannon ME, Cooke CT, McCarthy JS. Caffeine-induced cardiac arrhythmia: an unrecognised danger of healthfood products. Med J Aust 2001;174:520-1. View abstract.
- Carbo M, Segura J, De la Torre R, et al. Effect of quinolones on caffeine disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1989;45:234-40. View abstract.
- Carrillo JA, Benitez J. Clinically significant pharmacokinetic interactions between dietary caffeine and medications. Clin Pharmacokinet 2000;39:127-53. View abstract.
- Chen JF, Xu K, Petzer JP, et al. Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson's disease. J Neurosci 2001;21:RC143.. View abstract.
- Chen, Y., Xiao, C. Q., He, Y. J., Chen, B. L., Wang, G., Zhou, G., Zhang, W., Tan, Z. R., Cao, S., Wang, L. P., and Zhou, H. H. Genistein alters caffeine exposure in healthy female volunteers. Eur.J Clin.Pharmacol. 2011;67(4):347-353. View abstract.
- Chiu KM. Efficacy of calcium supplements on bone mass in postmenopausal women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1999;54:M275-80. View abstract.
- Chou T. Wake up and smell the coffee. Caffeine, coffee, and the medical consequences. West J Med 1992;157:544-53. View abstract.
- Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Jargiello-Baszak, M., Walek, M., Tylus, B., and Czuczwar, S. J. Caffeine and the anticonvulsant potency of antiepileptic drugs: experimental and clinical data. Pharmacol.Rep. 2011;63(1):12-18. View abstract.
- Ciszowski K, Biedron W, Gomólka E. Acute caffeine poisoning resulting in atrial fibrillation after guarana extract overdose. Przegl Lek. 2014;71(9):495-8. View abstract.
- da Costa Miranda V, Trufelli DC, Santos J, Campos MP, Nobuo M, da Costa Miranda M, Schlinder F, Riechelmann R, del Giglio A. Effectiveness of guarana (Paullinia cupana) for postradiation fatigue and depression: results of a pilot double-blind randomized study. J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Apr;15(4):431-3. View abstract.
- Daniel, W. A., Syrek, M., Rylko, Z., and Kot, M. Effects of phenothiazine neuroleptics on the rate of caffeine demethylation and hydroxylation in the rat liver. Pol.J Pharmacol 2001;53(6):615-621. View abstract.
- de Oliveira Campos MP, Riechelmann R, Martins LC, Hassan BJ, Casa FB, Del Giglio A. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) improves fatigue in breast cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy. J Altern Complement Med. 2011 Jun;17(6):505-12. View abstract.
- del Giglio AB, Cubero Dde I, Lerner TG, Guariento RT, de Azevedo RG, Paiva H, Goldman C, Carelli B, Cruz FM, Schindler F, Pianowski L, de Matos LL, del Giglio A. Purified dry extract of Paullinia cupana (guaraná) (PC-18) for chemotherapy-related fatigue in patients with solid tumors: an early discontinuation study. J Diet Suppl. 2013 Dec;10(4):325-34. View abstract.
- Dews PB, Curtis GL, Hanford KJ, O'Brien CP. The frequency of caffeine withdrawal in a population-based survey and in a controlled, blinded pilot experiment. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:1221-32. View abstract.
- Dews PB, O'Brien CP, Bergman J. Caffeine: behavioral effects of withdrawal and related issues. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1257-61. View abstract.
- DiPiro JT, Talbert RL, Yee GC, et al; eds. Pharmacotherapy: A pathophysiologic approach. 4th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1999.
- Dreher HM. The effect of caffeine reduction on sleep quality and well-being in persons with HIV. J Psychosom Res 2003;54:191-8.. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Eskenazi B. Caffeine—filtering the facts. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1688-9. View abstract.
- FDA. Proposed rule: dietary supplements containing ephedrine alkaloids. Available at: www.verity.fda.gov (Accessed 25 January 2000).
- Fernandes O, Sabharwal M, Smiley T, et al. Moderate to heavy caffeine consumption during pregnancy and relationship to spontaneous abortion and abnormal fetal growth: a meta-analysis. Reprod Toxicol 1998;12:435-44. View abstract.
- Ferrini RL, Barrett-Connor E. Caffeine intake and endogenous sex steroid levels in postmenopausal women. The Rancho Bernardo Study. Am J Epidemiol 1996:144:642-4. View abstract.
- For Dieter, Nearly the Ultimate Loss. The Washington Post. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/2000/03/19/for-dieter-nearly-the-ultimate-loss/c0f07474-489d-4f44-bc17-1f1367c956ae/ (Accessed 19 March 2000).
- Forrest WH Jr, Bellville JW, Brown BW Jr. The interaction of caffeine with pentobarbital as a nighttime hypnotic. Anesthesiology 1972;36:37-41. View abstract.
- Gasior, M., Borowicz, K., Buszewicz, G., Kleinrok, Z., and Czuczwar, S. J. Anticonvulsant activity of phenobarbital and valproate against maximal electroshock in mice during chronic treatment with caffeine and caffeine discontinuation. Epilepsia 1996;37(3):262-268. View abstract.
- Gasior, M., Swiader, M., Przybylko, M., Borowicz, K., Turski, W. A., Kleinrok, Z., and Czuczwar, S. J. Felbamate demonstrates low propensity for interaction with methylxanthines and Ca2+ channel modulators against experimental seizures in mice. Eur.J Pharmacol 7-10-1998;352(2-3):207-214. View abstract.
- Gorski, J. C., Huang, S. M., Pinto, A., Hamman, M. A., Hilligoss, J. K., Zaheer, N. A., Desai, M., Miller, M., and Hall, S. D. The effect of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea root) on cytochrome P450 activity in vivo. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004;75(1):89-100. View abstract.
- Grandjean AC, Reimers KJ, Bannick KE, Haven MC. The effect of caffeinated, non-caffeinated, caloric and non-caloric beverages on hydration. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:591-600.. View abstract.
- Greenway FL, Raum WJ, DeLany JP. The effect of an herbal dietary supplement containing ephedrine and caffeine on oxygen consumption in humans. J Altern Complement Med 2000;6:553-5. View abstract.
- Hagg S, Spigset O, Mjorndal T, Dahlqvist R. Effect of caffeine on clozapine pharmacokinetics in healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 2000;49:59-63. View abstract.
- Haller CA, Benowitz NL, Jacob P 3rd. Hemodynamic effects of ephedra-free weight-loss supplements in humans. Am J Med 2005;118:998-1003.. View abstract.
- Haller CA, Benowitz NL. Adverse cardiovascular and central nervous system events associated with dietary supplements containing ephedra alkaloids. N Engl J Med 2000;343:1833-8. View abstract.
- Haller CA, Jacob P 3rd, Benowitz NL. Pharmacology of ephedra alkaloids and caffeine after single-dose dietary supplement use. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2002;71:421-32. View abstract.
- Harder S, Fuhr U, Staib AH, Wolff T. Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and in vitro investigations. Am J Med 1989;87:89S-91S. View abstract.
- Hartter, S., Nordmark, A., Rose, D. M., Bertilsson, L., Tybring, G., and Laine, K. Effects of caffeine intake on the pharmacokinetics of melatonin, a probe drug for CYP1A2 activity. Br.J.Clin.Pharmacol. 2003;56(6):679-682. View abstract.
- Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guaraná in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;21(1):65-70. View abstract.
- Healy DP, Polk RE, Kanawati L, et al. Interaction between oral ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 1989;33:474-8. View abstract.
- Hodgson JM, Puddey IB, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of drinking green and black tea. J Hypertens 1999;17:457-63. View abstract.
- Holmgren P, Norden-Pettersson L, Ahlner J. Caffeine fatalities--four case reports. Forensic Sci Int 2004;139:71-3. View abstract.
- Horner NK, Lampe JW. Potential mechanisms of diet therapy for fibrocystic breast conditions show inadequate evidence of effectiveness. J Am Diet Assoc 2000;100:1368-80. View abstract.
- Howell LL, Coffin VL, Spealman RD. Behavioral and physiological effects of xanthines in nonhuman primates. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1997;129:1-14. View abstract.
- Infante S, Baeza ML, Calvo M, et al. Anaphylaxis due to caffeine. Allergy 2003;58:681-2. View abstract.
- Institute of Medicine. Caffeine for the Sustainment of Mental Task Performance: Formulations for Military Operations. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2001. Available at: http://books.nap.edu/books/0309082587/html/index.html.
- Jankiewicz, K., Chroscinska-Krawczyk, M., Blaszczyk, B., and Czuczwar, S. J. [Caffeine and antiepileptic drugs: experimental and clinical data]. Przegl.Lek. 2007;64(11):965-967. View abstract.
- Jefferson JW. Lithium tremor and caffeine intake: two cases of drinking less and shaking more. J Clin Psychiatry 1988;49:72-3. View abstract.
- Joeres R, Klinker H, Heusler H, et al. Influence of mexiletine on caffeine elimination. Pharmacol Ther 1987;33:163-9. View abstract.
- Juliano LM, Griffiths RR. A critical review of caffeine withdrawal: empirical validation of symptoms and signs, incidence, severity, and associated features. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 2004;176:1-29. View abstract.
- Kamimori GH, Penetar DM, Headley DB, et al. Effect of three caffeine doses on plasma catecholamines and alertness during prolonged wakefulness. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2000;56:537-44.. View abstract.
- Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Robertson B, Reay J, Brewster-Maund C, Luedemann J, Maggini S, Ruf M, Zangara A, Scholey AB. Improved cognitive performance and mental fatigue following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplement with added guaraná (Paullinia cupana). Appetite. 2008 Mar-May;50(2-3):506-13. View abstract.
- Klebanoff MA, Levine RJ, DerSimonian R, et al. Maternal serum paraxanthine, a caffeine metabolite, and the risk of spontaneous abortion. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1639-44. View abstract.
- Kockler DR, McCarthy MW, Lawson CL. Seizure activity and unresponsiveness after hydroxycut ingestion. Pharmacotherapy 2001;21:647-51.. View abstract.
- Kot, M. and Daniel, W. A. Effect of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) and ticlopidine on CYP1A2 activity and caffeine metabolism: an in vitro comparative study with human cDNA-expressed CYP1A2 and liver microsomes. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(6):1216-1220. View abstract.
- Kynast-Gales SA, Massey LK. Effect of caffeine on circadian excretion of urinary calcium and magnesium. J Am Coll Nutr. 1994;13:467-72. View abstract.
- Lake CR, Rosenberg DB, Gallant S, et al. Phenylpropanolamine increases plasma caffeine levels. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1990;47:675-85. View abstract.
- Lane JD, Barkauskas CE, Surwit RS, Feinglos MN. Caffeine impairs glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2004;27:2047-8. View abstract.
- Leson CL, McGuigan MA, Bryson SM. Caffeine overdose in an adolescent male. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 1988;26:407-15. View abstract.
- Liu, T. T. and Liau, J. Caffeine increases the linearity of the visual BOLD response. Neuroimage. 2-1-2010;49(3):2311-2317. View abstract.
- Lloyd T, Johnson-Rollings N, Eggli DF, et al. Bone status among postmenopausal women with different habitual caffeine intakes: a longitudinal investigation. J Am Coll Nutr 2000;19:256-61. View abstract.
- Luszczki, J. J., Zuchora, M., Sawicka, K. M., Kozinska, J., and Czuczwar, S. J. Acute exposure to caffeine decreases the anticonvulsant action of ethosuximide, but not that of clonazepam, phenobarbital and valproate against pentetrazole-induced seizures in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006;58(5):652-659. View abstract.
- Mansi IA, Huang J. Rhabdomyolysis in response to weight-loss herbal medicine. Am J Med Sci 2004;327:356-357. View abstract.
- Massey LK, Whiting SJ. Caffeine, urinary calcium, calcium metabolism and bone. J Nutr 1993;123:1611-4. View abstract.
- Massey LK. Is caffeine a risk factor for bone loss in the elderly? Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:569-70. View abstract.
- May DC, Jarboe CH, VanBakel AB, Williams WM. Effects of cimetidine on caffeine disposition in smokers and nonsmokers. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982;31:656-61. View abstract.
- Mays, D. C., Camisa, C., Cheney, P., Pacula, C. M., Nawoot, S., and Gerber, N. Methoxsalen is a potent inhibitor of the metabolism of caffeine in humans. Clin.Pharmacol.Ther. 1987;42(6):621-626. View abstract.
- McGowan JD, Altman RE, Kanto WP Jr. Neonatal withdrawal symptoms after chronic maternal ingestion of caffeine. South Med J 1988;81:1092-4.. View abstract.
- Mester R, Toren P, Mizrachi I, et al. Caffeine withdrawal increases lithium blood levels. Biol Psychiatry 1995;37:348-50. View abstract.
- Mohiuddin, M., Azam, A. T., Amran, M. S., and Hossain, M. A. In vive effects of gliclazide and metformin on the plasma concentration of caffeine in healthy rats. Pak.J Biol Sci 5-1-2009;12(9):734-737. View abstract.
- Moustakas D, Mezzio M, Rodriguez BR, Constable MA, Mulligan ME, Voura EB. Guarana provides additional stimulation over caffeine alone in the planarian model. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 16;10(4):e0123310. View abstract.
- Nawrot P, Jordan S, Eastwood J, et al. Effects of caffeine on human health. Food Addit Contam 2003;20:1-30. View abstract.
- Nehlig A, Debry G. Consequences on the newborn of chronic maternal consumption of coffee during gestation and lactation: a review. J Am Coll Nutr 1994;13:6-21.. View abstract.
- Nix D, Zelenitsky S, Symonds W, et al. The effect of fluconazole on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in young and elderly subjects. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1992;51:183.
- Norager, C. B., Jensen, M. B., Weimann, A., and Madsen, M. R. Metabolic effects of caffeine ingestion and physical work in 75-year old citizens. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2006;65(2):223-228. View abstract.
- Nurminen ML, Niittynen L, Korpela R, Vapaatalo H. Coffee, caffeine and blood pressure: a critical review. Eur J Clin Nutr 1999;53:831-9. View abstract.
- Palma CG, Lera AT, Lerner T, de Oliveira MM, de Borta TM, Barbosa RP, Brito GM, Guazzelli CA, Cruz FJ, del Giglio A. Guarana (Paullinia cupana) Improves Anorexia in Patients with Advanced Cancer. J Diet Suppl. 2016;13(2):221-31. View abstract.
- Peng PJ, Chiang KT, Liang CS. Low-dose caffeine may exacerbate psychotic symptoms in people with schizophrenia. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2014 Apr 1;26(2):E41. doi: 10.1176/appi.neuropsych.13040098. No abstract available. View abstract.
- Petrie HJ, Chown SE, Belfie LM, et al. Caffeine ingestion increases the insulin response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test in obese men before and after weight loss. Am J Clin Nutr 2004;80:22-8. View abstract.
- Pollock BG, Wylie M, Stack JA, et al. Inhibition of caffeine metabolism by estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. J Clin Pharmacol 1999;39:936-40. View abstract.
- Pomportes L, Davranche K, Brisswalter I, Hays A, Brisswalter J. Heart rate variability and cognitive function following a multi-vitamin and mineral supplementation with added guarana (Paullinia cupana). Nutrients. 2014 Dec 31;7(1):196-208. View abstract.
- Raaska K, Raitasuo V, Laitila J, Neuvonen PJ. Effect of caffeine-containing versus decaffeinated coffee on serum clozapine concentrations in hospitalised patients. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004;94:13-8. View abstract.
- Rapuri PB, Gallagher JC, Kinyamu HK, Ryschon KL. Caffeine intake increases the rate of bone loss in elderly women and interacts with vitamin D receptor genotypes. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;74:694-700. View abstract.
- Rees K, Allen D, Lader M. The influences of age and caffeine on psychomotor and cognitive function. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1999;145:181-8. View abstract.
- Robinson LE, Savani S, Battram DS, et al. Caffeine ingestion before an oral glucose tolerance test impairs blood glucose management in men with type 2 diabetes. J Nutr 2004;134:2528-33. View abstract.
- Ross GW, Abbott RD, Petrovitch H, et al. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of parkinson disease. JAMA 2000;283:2674-9. View abstract.
- Sanderink GJ, Bournique B, Stevens J, et al. Involvement of human CYP1A isoenzymes in the metabolism and drug interactions of riluzole in vitro. Pharmacol Exp Ther 1997;282:1465-72. View abstract.
- Savitz DA, Chan RL, Herring AH, et al. Caffeine and miscarriage risk. Epidemiology 2008;19:55-62. View abstract.
- Schechter MD, Timmons GD. Objectively measured hyperactivity--II. Caffeine and amphetamine effects. J Clin Pharmacol 1985;25:276-80.. View abstract.
- Scholey A, Bauer I, Neale C, Savage K, Camfield D, White D, Maggini S, Pipingas A, Stough C, Hughes M. Acute effects of different multivitamin mineral preparations with and without Guaraná on mood, cognitive performance and functional brain activation. Nutrients. 2013 Sep 13;5(9):3589-604. View abstract.
- Sette CVM, Ribas de Alcântara BB, Schoueri JHM, et al. Purified dry Paullinia cupana (PC-18) extract for chemotherapy-induced fatigue: results of two double-blind randomized clinical trials. J Diet Suppl 2018;15(5):673-83. doi: 10.1080/19390211.2017.1384781. View abstract.
- Shet, M. S., McPhaul, M., Fisher, C. W., Stallings, N. R., and Estabrook, R. W. Metabolism of the antiandrogenic drug (Flutamide) by human CYP1A2. Drug Metab Dispos. 1997;25(11):1298-1303. View abstract.
- Silva CP, Sampaio GR, Freitas RAMS, Torres EAFS. Polyphenols from guaraná after in vitro digestion: evaluation of bioacessibility and inhibition of activity of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes. Food Chem 2018;267:405-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2017.08.078. View abstract.
- Silvestrini GI, Marino F, Cosentino M. Effects of a commercial product containing guaraná on psychological well-being, anxiety and mood: a single-blind, placebo-controlled study in healthy subjects. J Negat Results Biomed. 2013 May 25;12:9. View abstract.
- Sinclair CJ, Geiger JD. Caffeine use in sports. A pharmacological review. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2000;40:71-9. View abstract.
- Smith A. Effects of caffeine on human behavior. Food Chem Toxicol 2002;40:1243-55. View abstract.
- Spinella M. Herbal Medicines and Epilepsy: The Potential for Benefit and Adverse Effects. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2(6):524-532. View abstract.
- Stanek EJ, Melko GP, Charland SL. Xanthine interference with dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging. Pharmacother 1995;29:425-7. View abstract.
- Stookey JD. The diuretic effects of alcohol and caffeine and total water intake misclassification. Eur J Epidemiol 1999;15:181-8. View abstract.
- Suleman A, Siddiqui NH. Haemodynamic and cardiovascular effects of caffeine. Medicine On Line Int J Medicine 2000. www.priory.com/pharmol/caffeine.htm (Accessed 14 April 2000).
- The National Toxicology Program (NTP). Caffeine. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). Available at: http://cerhr.niehs.nih.gov/common/caffeine.html.
- Tobias JD. Caffeine in the treatment of apnea associated with respiratory syncytial virus infection in neonates and infants. South Med J 2000;93:297-304. View abstract.
- Underwood DA. Which medications should be held before a pharmacologic or exercise stress test? Cleve Clin J Med 2002;69:449-50. View abstract.
- Ursing, C., Wikner, J., Brismar, K., and Rojdmark, S. Caffeine raises the serum melatonin level in healthy subjects: an indication of melatonin metabolism by cytochrome P450(CYP)1A2. J.Endocrinol.Invest 2003;26(5):403-406. View abstract.
- Vahedi K, Domingo V, Amarenco P, Bousser MG. Ischemic stroke in a sportsman who consumed MaHuang extract and creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatr 2000;68:112-3. View abstract.
- van der Hoeven N, Visser I, Schene A, van den Born BJ. Severe hypertension related to caffeinated coffee and tranylcypromine: a case report. Ann Intern Med. 2014 May 6;160(9):657-8. doi: 10.7326/L14-5009-8. No abstract available. View abstract.
- Vandeberghe K, Gillis N, Van Leemputte M, et al. Caffeine counteracts the ergogenic action of muscle creatine loading. J Appl Physiol 1996;80:452-7. View abstract.
- Vaz, J., Kulkarni, C., David, J., and Joseph, T. Influence of caffeine on pharmacokinetic profile of sodium valproate and carbamazepine in normal human volunteers. Indian J.Exp.Biol. 1998;36(1):112-114. View abstract.
- Veasey RC, Haskell-Ramsay CF, Kennedy DO, Wishart K, Maggini S, Fuchs CJ, Stevenson EJ. The Effects of Supplementation with a Vitamin and Mineral Complex with Guaraná Prior to Fasted Exercise on Affect, Exertion, Cognitive Performance, and Substrate Metabolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Nutrients. 2015 Jul 27;7(8):6109-27. View abstract.
- Wahllander A, Paumgartner G. Effect of ketoconazole and terbinafine on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine in healthy volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1989;37:279-83. View abstract.
- Wakabayashi K, Kono S, Shinchi K, et al. Habitual coffee consumption and blood pressure: A study of self-defense officials in Japan. Eur J Epidemiol 1998;14:669-73. View abstract.
- Wallach J. Interpretation of Diagnostic Tests. A synopsis of Laboratory Medicine. Fifth ed; Boston, MA: Little Brown, 1992.
- Wang, X. and Yeung, J. H. Effects of the aqueous extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge on caffeine pharmacokinetics and liver microsomal CYP1A2 activity in humans and rats. J Pharm Pharmacol 2010;62(8):1077-1083. View abstract.
- Watson JM, Jenkins EJ, Hamilton P, et al. Influence of caffeine on the frequency and perception of hypoglycemia in free-living patients with type 1 diabetes. Diabetes Care 2000;23:455-9. View abstract.
- Watson JM, Sherwin RS, Deary IJ, et al. Dissociation of augmented physiological, hormonal and cognitive responses to hypoglycaemia with sustained caffeine use. Clin Sci (Lond) 2003;104:447-54. View abstract.
- Wemple RD, Lamb DR, McKeever KH. Caffeine vs caffeine-free sports drinks: effects on urine production at rest and during prolonged exercise. Int J Sports Med 1997;18:40-6. View abstract.
- Weng X, Odouli R, Li DK. Maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and the risk of miscarriage: a prospective cohort study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008;198:279.e1-8. View abstract.
- Wikoff D, Welsh BT, Henderson R, et al. Systematic review of the potential adverse effects of caffeine consumption in healthy adults, pregnant women, adolescents, and children. Food Chem Toxicol 2017;109:585-648. View abstract.
- Williams MH, Branch JD. Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: an update. J Am Coll Nutr 1998;17:216-34. View abstract.
- Winkelmayer WC, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Curhan GC. Habitual caffeine intake and the risk of hypertension in women. JAMA 2005;294:2330-5. View abstract.
- Wojcikowski, J. and Daniel, W. A. Perazine at therapeutic drug concentrations inhibits human cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 1A2 (CYP1A2) and caffeine metabolism--an in vitro study. Pharmacol Rep. 2009;61(5):851-858. View abstract.
- Zheng XM, Williams RC. Serum caffeine levels after 24-hour abstention: clinical implications on dipyridamole (201)Tl myocardial perfusion imaging. J Nucl Med Technol 2002;30:123-7. View abstract.
- Zheng, J., Chen, B., Jiang, B., Zeng, L., Tang, Z. R., Fan, L., and Zhou, H. H. The effects of puerarin on CYP2D6 and CYP1A2 activities in vivo. Arch Pharm Res 2010;33(2):243-246. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased GUARANA?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)