ELEUTHERO

OTHER NAME(S):

Acanthopanax Obovatus, Acanthopanax Obovatus Hoo, Acanthopanax senticosus, Buisson du Diable, Ci Wu Jia, Ciwujia, Ciwujia Root, Ciwujia Root Extract, Devil's Bush, Devil's Shrub, Éleuthéro, Eleuthero Extract, Eleuthero Ginseng, Eleuthero Root, Eleutherococci Radix, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Éleuthérocoque, Ginseng de Sibérie, Ginseng des Russes, Ginseng Root, Ginseng Siberiano, Ginseng Sibérien, Hedera senticosa, North Wu Jia Pi, Phytoestrogen, Plante Secrète des Russes, Poivre Sauvage, Prickly Eleutherococcus, Racine d’Eleuthérocoque, Racine de Ginseng, Racine Russe, Russian Root, Shigoka, Siberian Eleuthero, Siberian Ginseng, Thorny Bearer of Free Berries, Touch-Me-Not, Untouchable, Ussuri, Ussurian Thorny Pepperbrush, Wild Pepper, Wu Jia Pi, Wu-jia.

Overview

Overview Information

Eleuthero is a small, woody shrub. People use the root of the plant to make medicine. Eleuthero is sometimes called "Siberian ginseng". But eleuthero is not related to true ginseng. Don't confuse it with American or Panax ginseng.

Eleuthero is often called an "adaptogen." This is a non-medical term used to describe compounds that might improve resistance to stress. But there is no good evidence showing that eleuthero has adaptogen-like effects.

Eleuthero is used for diabetes, athletic performance, memory and thinking skills (cognitive function), the common cold, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence supporting most of its uses.

How does it work?

Eleuthero contains many chemicals that affect the brain, immune system, and certain hormones. It might also contain chemicals that have activity against some bacteria and viruses.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

  • Common cold. Some research shows that taking a combination product containing eleuthero plus andrographis (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) improves symptoms of the common cold. This product must be taken within 72 hours after symptoms begin. Some symptoms can improve after 2 days of treatment. But it usually takes 4-5 days of treatment to get the most benefit.
  • Diabetes. Taking eleuthero extract can reduce blood glucose levels in some people with type 2 diabetes.
  • Genital herpes. Taking a specific eleuthero extract (Elagen) can reduce how often genital herpes flares up.

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Athletic performance. Most research shows that taking eleuthero doesn't improve breathing or heart rate recovery after treadmill, cycling, or stair-stepping exercises. Taking eleuthero also doesn't improve endurance or performance in trained distance runners. But some research shows that taking powdered eleuthero might improve breathing and endurance while cycling.
  • Bipolar disorder. Taking eleuthero plus lithium for 6 weeks might improve symptoms of bipolar disorder about as well as taking lithium plus fluoxetine. It's unclear if taking eleuthero plus lithium works better than taking only lithium.
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Taking eleuthero by mouth doesn't seem to reduce symptoms of CFS any better than a placebo.
  • Memory and thinking skills (cognitive function). Early research shows that taking eleuthero might improve memory and feelings of well-being in some healthy, middle-aged people.
  • Nerve pain in people with diabetes (diabetic neuropathy). Early research shows that taking eleuthero extract may improve nerve pain by a small amount in some people with diabetes.
  • Hangover. Early research shows that taking eleuthero extract before and after drinking alcohol might relieve some hangover symptoms.
  • Quality of life. Some research shows that taking eleuthero can improve sense of well-being in people over 65-years-old. But this effect doesn't seem to last for more than 8 weeks.
  • Stress. Early research shows taking eleuthero root doesn't reduce stress levels.
  • An inherited fever disorder (familial Mediterranean fever).
  • Altitude sickness.
  • Alzheimer disease.
  • Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
  • Bronchitis.
  • Chemotherapy side effects.
  • Fatigue.
  • Fibromyalgia.
  • Flu (influenza).
  • High cholesterol.
  • Motion sickness.
  • Osteoarthritis.
  • Osteoporosis.
  • Pneumonia.
  • Tuberculosis.
  • Upper airway infection.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate eleuthero for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

When taken by mouth: Eleuthero is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken for up to 3 months. While side effects are rare, some people can have nausea, diarrhea, and rash. In high doses, eleuthero might cause nervousness and anxiety. There isn't enough reliable information to know if eleuthero is safe to use for longer than 3 months.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Eleuthero is POSSIBLY SAFE in teenagers (ages 12-17 years) when taken by mouth for up to 6 weeks. There isn't enough reliable information to know if it safe when taken for longer than 6 weeks or when taken by children younger than 12 years of age.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if eleuthero is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.

Bleeding disorders: Eleuthero contains chemicals that might slow blood clotting. In theory, eleuthero might increase the risk of bleeding and bruising in people with bleeding disorders.

Heart conditions: Eleuthero might cause a pounding heart, irregular heartbeat, or high blood pressure. People who have heart disorders (e.g., "hardening of the arteries," rheumatic heart disease, or history of heart attack) should use eleuthero only under a healthcare provider's supervision.

Diabetes: Eleuthero might increase or decrease blood sugar. In theory, eleuthero might affect blood sugar control in people with diabetes. Monitor your blood sugar carefully if you take eleuthero and have diabetes.

Hormone-sensitive conditions such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids: Eleuthero might act like estrogen. If you have any condition that might be made worse by exposure to estrogen, don't use eleuthero.

High blood pressure: Eleuthero should not be used by people with blood pressure over 180/90. Eleuthero might make high blood pressure worse.

Mental conditions such as mania or schizophrenia: Eleuthero might make these conditions worse. Use with caution.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Alcohol interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Alcohol can cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Siberian ginseng might also cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Taking large amounts of Siberian ginseng along with alcohol might cause too much sleepiness.

  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Digoxin (Lanoxin) helps the heart beat more strongly. One person had too much digoxin in their system while taking a natural product that might have had Siberian ginseng in it. But it is unclear if Siberian ginseng or other herbs in the supplement were the cause.

  • Lithium interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Siberian ginseng might have an effect like a water pill or "diuretic." Taking Siberian ginseng might decrease how well the body gets rid of lithium. This could increase how much lithium is in the body and result in serious side effects. Talk with your healthcare provider before using this product if you are taking lithium. Your lithium dose might need to be changed.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) substrates) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with some medications that are changed by the liver might increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver

    Some of these medications that are changed by the liver include clozapine (Clozaril), cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril), fluvoxamine (Luvox), haloperidol (Haldol), imipramine (Tofranil), mexiletine (Mexitil), olanzapine (Zyprexa), pentazocine (Talwin), propranolol (Inderal), tacrine (Cognex), theophylline, zileuton (Zyflo), zolmitriptan (Zomig), and others.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) substrates) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver

    Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), diazepam (Valium), zileuton (Zyflo), celecoxib (Celebrex), diclofenac (Voltaren), fluvastatin (Lescol), glipizide (Glucotrol), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), phenytoin (Dilantin), piroxicam (Feldene), tamoxifen (Nolvadex), tolbutamide (Tolinase), torsemide (Demadex), warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

  • Medications for diabetes (Antidiabetes drugs) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Siberian ginseng might affect blood sugar, either lowering or increasing blood sugar levels. Diabetes medications are also used to lower blood sugar. Taking Siberian ginseng along with diabetes medications might cause your blood sugar to go too low or cause your diabetes medication to be less effective. Monitor your blood sugar closely. The dose of your diabetes medication might need to be changed.

    Some medications used for diabetes include glimepiride (Amaryl), glyburide (DiaBeta, Glynase PresTab, Micronase), insulin, pioglitazone (Actos), rosiglitazone (Avandia), chlorpropamide (Diabinese), glipizide (Glucotrol), tolbutamide (Orinase), and others.

  • Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Siberian ginseng might slow blood clotting. Taking Siberian ginseng along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding

    Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.

  • Sedative medications (CNS depressants) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Siberian ginseng might cause sleepiness and drowsiness. Medications that cause sleepiness are called sedatives. Taking Siberian ginseng along with sedative medications might cause too much sleepiness

    Some sedative medications include clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), phenobarbital (Donnatal), zolpidem (Ambien), and others.

Minor Interaction

Be watchful with this combination

!
  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) substrates) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver.

    Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with some medications that are change by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of your medication. Before taking Siberian ginseng talk to your healthcare provider if you take any medications that are changed by the liver

    Some medications that are changed by the liver include amitriptyline (Elavil), clozapine (Clozaril), codeine, desipramine (Norpramin), donepezil (Aricept), fentanyl (Duragesic), flecainide (Tambocor), fluoxetine (Prozac), meperidine (Demerol), methadone (Dolophine), metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol XL), olanzapine (Zyprexa), ondansetron (Zofran), tramadol (Ultram), trazodone (Desyrel), and others.

  • Medications changed by the liver (Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) substrates) interacts with ELEUTHERO

    Some medications are changed and broken down by the liver

    Siberian ginseng might decrease how quickly the liver breaks down some medications. Taking Siberian ginseng along with some medications that are broken down by the liver can increase the effects and side effects of some medications. Before taking Siberian ginseng, talk to your healthcare provider if you are taking any medications that are changed by the liver.

    Some medications changed by the liver include lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), itraconazole (Sporanox), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), and many others.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

BY MOUTH:

  • For the common cold: 400 mg of a specific combination product (Kan Jang, Swedish Herbal Institute) containing eleuthero plus andrographis extract, three times daily for 5 days.
  • For diabetes: 480 mg of eleuthero extract, standardized to contain eleutheroside E and B 1.12%, daily for 3 months.
  • For genital herpes: 400 mg of eleuthero extract standardized to contain eleutheroside E 0.3%, daily for 3 months.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Chen, C. Y. O, Ribaya-Mercado, J. D, McKay, D. L, Croom, E, and Blumberg, J. B. Differential antioxidant and quinone reductase inducing activity of American, Asian, and Siberian ginseng. Food Chemistry 2010;119(2):445-451.
  • Cheuvront, S. N., Moffatt, R. J., Biggerstaff, K. D., Bearden, S., and McDonough, P. Effect of ENDUROX on metabolic responses to submaximal exercise. Int J Sport Nutr. 1999;9(4):434-442. View abstract.
  • Chubarev, V. N., Rubtsova, E. R., Filatova, I. V., Krendal', F. P., and Davydova, O. N. [Immunotropic effect of a tincture of the tissue culture biomass of ginseng cells and of an Eleutherococcus extract in mice]. Farmakol.Toksikol. 1989;52(2):55-59. View abstract.
  • Daley, J. Adaptogens. J Complement Med 2009;8(1):36-38.
  • Deyama, T., Nishibe, S., and Nakazawa, Y. Constituents and pharmacological effects of Eucommia and Siberian ginseng. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2001;22(12):1057-1070. View abstract.
  • Di Carlo, G., Pacilio, M., Capasso, R., and Di Carlo, R. Effect on prolactin secretion of Echinacea purpurea, hypericum perforatum and Eleutherococcus senticosus. Phytomedicine 2005;12(9):644-647. View abstract.
  • Drozd, J., Sawicka, T., and Prosinska, J. Estimation of humoral activity of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Acta Pol.Pharm 2002;59(5):395-401. View abstract.
  • Engel, K. herbal tonics. Natural Health 2007;38(1):91-94.
  • Feng, S., Hu, F., Zhao, J. X., Liu, X., and Li, Y. Determination of eleutheroside E and eleutheroside B in rat plasma and tissue by high-performance liquid chromatography using solid-phase extraction and photodiode array detection. Eur J Pharm.Biopharm. 2006;62(3):315-320. View abstract.
  • Filaretov, A. A., Bogdanova, T. S., Mitiushov, M. I., Podvigina, T. T., and Srailova, G. T. [Effect of adaptogens on the activity of the pituitary-adrenocortical system in rats]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1986;101(5):573-574. View abstract.
  • Friedman, J. A., Taylor, S. A., McDermott, W., and Alikhani, P. Multifocal and recurrent subarachnoid hemorrhage due to an herbal supplement containing natural coumarins. Neurocrit.Care 2007;7(1):76-80. View abstract.
  • Fujikawa, T., Yamaguchi, A., Morita, I., Takeda, H., and Nishibe, S. Protective effects of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms from Hokkaido and its components on gastric ulcer in restrained cold water stressed rats. Biol.Pharm.Bull. 1996;19(9):1227-1230. View abstract.
  • Gaffney, B. T., Hugel, H. M., and Rich, P. A. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 12-14-2001;70(4):431-442. View abstract.
  • Gladchun, V. P. [Effect of adaptogenes on the immunological reactivity of patients with a history of acute pneumonia]. Vrach.Delo 1983;(2):32-35. View abstract.
  • Golotin, V. G., Gonenko, V. A., Zimina, V. V., Naumov, V. V., and Shevtsova, S. P. [Effect of ionol and eleutherococcus on changes of the hypophyseo-adrenal system in rats under extreme conditions]. Vopr.Med Khim. 1989;35(1):35-37. View abstract.
  • Goulet, E. D. and Dionne, I. J. Assessment of the effects of eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc.Metab 2005;15(1):75-83. View abstract.
  • Gyllenhaal, C., Merritt, S. L., Peterson, S. D., Block, K. I., and Gochenour, T. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Med Rev. 2000;4(3):229-251. View abstract.
  • Huang, D. B., Ran, R. Z., and Yu, Z. F. [Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus injection on the activities of human tumor necrosis factor and natural killer cell in blood in the patients with lung cancer]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 2005;30(8):621-624. View abstract.
  • Huang, L. Z., Huang, B. K., Ye, Q., and Qin, L. P. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-fatigue property of Acanthopanax senticosus. J Ethnopharmacol. 1-7-2011;133(1):213-219. View abstract.
  • Huang, L. Z., Wei, L., Zhao, H. F., Huang, B. K., Rahman, K., and Qin, L. P. The effect of Eleutheroside E on behavioral alterations in murine sleep deprivation stress model. Eur J Pharmacol. 5-11-2011;658(2-3):150-155. View abstract.
  • Huang, L., Zhao, H., Huang, B., Zheng, C., Peng, W., and Qin, L. Acanthopanax senticosus: review of botany, chemistry and pharmacology. Pharmazie 2011;66(2):83-97. View abstract.
  • Jeong, H. J., Koo, H. N., Myung, N. I., Shin, M. K., Kim, J. W., Kim, D. K., Kim, K. S., Kim, H. M., and Lee, Y. M. Inhibitory effects of mast cell-mediated allergic reactions by cell cultured Siberian Ginseng. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2001;23(1):107-117. View abstract.
  • Jiang, J., Eliaz, I., and Sliva, D. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid: mechanism of activity. Int J Oncol. 2011;38(6):1675-1682. View abstract.
  • Jung, C. H., Jung, H., Shin, Y. C., Park, J. H., Jun, C. Y., Kim, H. M., Yim, H. S., Shin, M. G., Bae, H. S., Kim, S. H., and Ko, S. G. Eleutherococcus senticosus extract attenuates LPS-induced iNOS expression through the inhibition of Akt and JNK pathways in murine macrophage. J Ethnopharmacol. 8-15-2007;113(1):183-187. View abstract.
  • Kaloeva, Z. D. [Effect of the glycosides of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the hemodynamic indices of children with hypotensive states]. Farmakol.Toksikol. 1986;49(5):73. View abstract.
  • Khalsa, Karta Purkh Singh. Build your immunity. Better Nutrition 2009;71(8):20-21.
  • Khetagurova, L. G., Gonobobleva, T. N., and Pashaian, S. G. [Effects of Eleutherococcus on the biorhythm of indices of peripheral blood in dogs]. Biull.Eksp.Biol.Med 1991;111(4):402-404. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. J., Hong, H. D., Lee, O. H., and Lee, B. Y. The effects of Acanthopanax senticosus on global hepatic gene expression in rats subjected to heat environmental stress. Toxicology 12-5-2010;278(2):217-223. View abstract.
  • Kim, K. S., Yao, L., Lee, Y. C., Chung, E., Kim, K. M., Kwak, Y. J., Kim, S. J., Cui, Z., and Lee, J. H. Hyul-Tong-Ryung suppresses PMA-induced MMP-9 expression by inhibiting AP-1-mediated gene expression via ERK 1/2 signaling pathway in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Immunopharmacol.Immunotoxicol. 2010;32(4):600-606. View abstract.
  • Kimura, Y. and Sumiyoshi, M. Effects of various Eleutherococcus senticosus cortex on swimming time, natural killer activity and corticosterone level in forced swimming stressed mice. J Ethnopharmacol 2004;95(2-3):447-453. View abstract.
  • Kong XiangFeng, Yin YuLong, Wu GuoYao, Liu HeJun, Yin FuGui, Li TieJun, Huang RuiLin, Ruan Zheng, Xiong Hua, Deng ZeYuan, Xie MingYong, Liao YiPing, and Kim SungWoo. Dietary supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus extract modulates cellular and humoral immunity in weaned piglets. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences Kyunggi-do: Asian-Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies 2011;20(9):1453-1461.
  • Kupin, V. I., Polevaia, E. B., and Sorokin, A. M. [Immunomodulating action of an Eleuterococcus extract in oncologic patients]. Sov.Med 1987;(5):114-116. View abstract.
  • Kwan, C. Y., Zhang, W. B., Sim, S. M., Deyama, T., and Nishibe, S. Vascular effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus): endothelium-dependent NO- and EDHF-mediated relaxation depending on vessel size. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol 2004;369(5):473-480. View abstract.
  • Lauková, A, Plachá, I, Chrastinová, L, Simonová, M, Szabóová, R, Strompfová, V, Jur?ík, R, and Porá?ová, J. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on the phagocytic activity in rabbits. Slovenský Veterinársky ?asopisKošice: Institute for Postgraduate Education of Veterinary Surgeons 2008;33(4):251-252.
  • Li Fang, Li Wei, Fu HongWei, Zhang QingBo, and Koike, K. Pancreatic lipase-inhibiting triterpenoid saponins from fruits of Acanthopanax senticosus. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2007;55(7):1087-1089.
  • Li, X. Y. Immunomodulating Chinese herbal medicines. Mem.Inst.Oswaldo Cruz 1991;86 Suppl 2:159-164. View abstract.
  • Liang, Q., Yu, X., Qu, S., Xu, H., and Sui, D. Acanthopanax senticosides B ameliorates oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Eur J Pharmacol. 2-10-2010;627(1-3):209-215. View abstract.
  • Lim JungDae and Choung MyoungGun. Screening of biological activities of Acanthopanax senticosus fruits extracts. Korean J Crop Sci 2011;56(1):1-7.
  • Lin ChiaChin, Hsieh ShuJon, Hsu ShihLan, and Chang, C. M. J. Hot pressurized water extraction of syringin from Acanthopanax senticosus and in vitro activation on rat-blood macrophages. Biochem Eng J 2007;37(2):117-124.
  • Lin, Q. Y., Jin, L. J., Cao, Z. H., Lu, Y. N., Xue, H. Y., and Xu, Y. P. Acanthopanax senticosus suppresses reactive oxygen species production by mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Phytother.Res 2008;22(6):740-745. View abstract.
  • Lin, Q. Y., Jin, L. J., Ma, Y. S., Shi, M., and Xu, Y. P. Acanthopanax senticosus inhibits nitric oxide production in murine macrophages in vitro and in vivo. Phytother.Res 2007;21(9):879-883. View abstract.
  • Liu, K. Y., Wu, Y. C., Liu, I. M., Yu, W. C., and Cheng, J. T. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats. Neurosci Lett. 3-28-2008;434(2):195-199. View abstract.
  • Maruyama, T., Kamakura, H., Miyai, M., Komatsu, K., Kawasaki, T., Fujita, M., Shimada, H., Yamamoto, Y., Shibata, T., and Goda, Y. Authentication of the traditional medicinal plant Eleutherococcus senticosus by DNA and chemical analyses. Planta Med 2008;74(7):787-789. View abstract.
  • McNaughton, L. G. Egan and G. Caelli. A comparison of Chinese and Russian ginseng as ergogenic aids to improve various facets of physical fitness. Int.Clin.Nutr.Rev. 1989;9:32-35.
  • Baczek, K. Accumulation of biologically active compounds in Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus/Rupr. et Maxim./Maxim.) grown in Poland. Herba Polonica 2009;55:7-13.
  • Baczek, K. Accumulation of biologically active compounds in Eleuthero (Eleutherococcus senticosus/Rupr. et Maxim./Maxim.) grown in Poland. Herba Polonica Poznan´: Instytut Ro?lin i Przetworów Zielarskich 2009;55(1):7-13.
  • Baranov, A. I. Medicinal uses of ginseng and related plants in the Soviet Union: recent trends in the Soviet literature. J Ethnopharmacol 1982;6(3):339-353. View abstract.
  • Barkan, A. I., Gaiduchenia, L. I., and Makarenko, IuA. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on respiratory viral infectious morbidity in children in organized collectives]. Pediatriia. 1980;(4):65-66. View abstract.
  • Bazaz'ian, G. G., Liapina, L. A., Pastorova, V. E., and Zvereva, E. G. [Effect of Eleutherococcus on the functional status of the anticoagulation system in older animals]. Fiziol.Zh.SSSR Im I.M.Sechenova 1987;73(10):1390-1395. View abstract.
  • Ben Hur, E. and Fulder, S. Effect of Panax ginseng saponins and Eleutherococcus senticosus on survival of cultured mammalian cells after ionizing radiation. Am.J Chin Med 1981;9(1):48-56. View abstract.
  • Bohn, B., Nebe, C. T., and Birr, C. Flow-cytometric studies with eleutherococcus senticosus extract as an immunomodulatory agent. Arzneimittelforschung. 1987;37(10):1193-1196. View abstract.
  • Bu, Y., Jin, Z. H., Park, S. Y., Baek, S., Rho, S., Ha, N., Park, S. K., and Kim, H. Siberian ginseng reduces infarct volume in transient focal cerebral ischaemia in Sprague-Dawley rats. Phytother Res 2005;19(2):167-169. View abstract.
  • Castleman, M. 6 TOP HERBAL TONICS. Mother Earth News 2008;228:121-127.
  • Chang, S. H., Sung, H. C., Choi, Y., Ko, S. Y., Lee, B. E., Baek, D. H., Kim, S. W., and Kim, J. K. Suppressive effect of AIF, a water extract from three herbs, on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5(9):1365-1372. View abstract.
  • Medon, P. J., Thompson, E. B., and Farnsworth, N. R. Hypoglycemic effect and toxicity of Eleutherococcus senticosus following acute and chronic administration in mice. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue.Bao. 1981;2(4):281-285. View abstract.
  • Molokovskii, D. S., Davydov, V. V., and Tiulenev, V. V. [The action of adaptogenic plant preparations in experimental alloxan diabetes]. Probl.Endokrinol.(Mosk) 1989;35(6):82-87. View abstract.
  • Monograph. Eleutherococcus senticosus. Altern Med Rev 2006;11(2):151-155. View abstract.
  • Monokhov, B. V. [Influence of the liquid extract from the roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus on the toxicity and antitumor activity of cyclophosphan]. Vopr.Onkol. 1965;11(12):60-63. View abstract.
  • Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Impact of Chisan (ADAPT-232) on the quality-of-life and its efficacy as an adjuvant in the treatment of acute non-specific pneumonia. Phytomedicine 2005;12(10):723-729. View abstract.
  • Narimanian, M., Badalyan, M., Panosyan, V., Gabrielyan, E., Panossian, A., Wikman, G., and Wagner, H. Randomized trial of a fixed combination (KanJang) of herbal extracts containing Adhatoda vasica, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus in patients with upper respiratory tract infections. Phytomedicine 2005;12(8):539-547. View abstract.
  • Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. Reprint of The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 2008;61(1-2):181-193. View abstract.
  • Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., Grothaus, L., Ehrlich, K., Guiltinan, J., Ludman, E., and Lacroix, A. Z. The Herbal Alternatives for Menopause (HALT) Study: background and study design. Maturitas 10-16-2005;52(2):134-146. View abstract.
  • Newton, K. M., Reed, S. D., LaCroix, A. Z., Grothaus, L. C., Ehrlich, K., and Guiltinan, J. Treatment of vasomotor symptoms of menopause with black cohosh, multibotanicals, soy, hormone therapy, or placebo: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 12-19-2006;145(12):869-879. View abstract.
  • Niu, H. S., Hsu, F. L., Liu, I. M., and Cheng, J. T. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats. Horm.Metab Res 2007;39(12):894-898. View abstract.
  • Niu, H. S., Liu, I. M., Cheng, J. T., Lin, C. L., and Hsu, F. L. Hypoglycemic effect of syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Planta Med 2008;74(2):109-113. View abstract.
  • Oh SY, Aryal DK, Kim Y-G, and Kim H-G. Effects of R. glutinosa and E. senticosus on postmenopausal osteoporosis. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2007;11(3):121-127.
  • Olalde, J. A., Magarici, M., Amendola, F., del, Castillo O., Gonzalez, S., and Muhammad, A. Clinical outcomes of diabetic foot management with Circulat. Phytother.Res 2008;22(10):1292-1298. View abstract.
  • Panossian, A. and Wagner, H. Stimulating effect of adaptogens: an overview with particular reference to their efficacy following single dose administration. Phytother Res 2005;19(10):819-838. View abstract.
  • Panossian, A. and Wikman, G. Evidence-based efficacy of adaptogens in fatigue, and molecular mechanisms related to their stress-protective activity. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2009;4(3):198-219. View abstract.
  • Panossian, A., Davtyan, T., Gukassyan, N., Gukasova, G., Mamikonyan, G., Gabrielian, E., and Wikman, G. Effect of andrographolide and Kan Jang--fixed combination of extract SHA-10 and extract SHE-3--on proliferation of human lymphocytes, production of cytokines and immune activation markers in the whole blood cells culture. Phytomedicine. 2002;9(7):598-605. View abstract.
  • Park, E. J., Nan, J. X., Zhao, Y. Z., Lee, S. H., Kim, Y. H., Nam, J. B., Lee, J. J., and Sohn, D. H. Water-soluble polysaccharide from Eleutherococcus senticosus stems attenuates fulminant hepatic failure induced by D-galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide in mice. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2004;94(6):298-304. View abstract.
  • Park, S. H., Kim, S. K., Shin, I. H., Kim, H. G., and Choe, J. Y. Effects of AIF on Knee Osteoarthritis Patients: Double-blind, Randomized Placebo-controlled Study. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;13(1):33-37. View abstract.
  • Pearce, P. T., Zois, I., Wynne, K. N., and Funder, J. W. Panax ginseng and Eleuthrococcus senticosus extracts--in vitro studies on binding to steroid receptors. Endocrinol.Jpn. 1982;29(5):567-573. View abstract.
  • Perfect, M. M., Bourne, N., Ebel, C., and Rosenthal, S. L. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of genital herpes. Herpes. 2005;12(2):38-41. View abstract.
  • Plowman, S. A. K. Dustman H. Walicek C. Corless and G. Ehlers. The effects of ENDUROX on the physiological responses to stair-stepping exercise. Res.Q.Exerc.Sport. 1999;70:385-388.
  • Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Pershina, O. V., Minakova, M. Y., Suslov, N. I., and Dygai, A. M. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of natural preparations on erythropoiesis under conditions of conflict situation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2003;136(2):165-169. View abstract.
  • Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Pershina, O. V., Suslov, N. I., Minakova, M. Y., Dygai, A. M., and Gol'dberg, E. D. Mechanisms underling the effects of adaptogens on erythropoiesis during paradoxical sleep deprivation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2002;133(5):428-432. View abstract.
  • Provalova, N. V., Skurikhin, E. G., Suslov, N. I., Dygai, A. M., and Gol'dberg, E. D. Effects of adaptogens on granulocytopoiesis during paradoxical sleep deprivation. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2002;133(3):261-264. View abstract.
  • Provino, R. The role of adaptogens in stress management. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2010;22(2):41-49.
  • Raman, P., Dewitt, D. L., and Nair, M. G. Lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of acidic aqueous extracts of some dietary supplements. Phytother.Res 2008;22(2):204-212. View abstract.
  • Rasmussen, P. Phytotherapy in an influenza pandemic. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2009;21(2):32-37.
  • Rhéaume, K. Adapting to stress. Alive: Canada's Natural Health & Wellness Magazine 2007;298:56-57.
  • Rhim, Y. T., Kim, H., Yoon, S. J., Kim, S. S., Chang, H. K., Lee, T. H., Lee, H. H., Shin, M. C., Shin, M. S., and Kim, C. J. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus on 5-hydroxytryptamine synthesis and tryptophan hydroxylase expression in the dorsal raphe of exercised rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-8-2007;114(1):38-43. View abstract.
  • Rogala, E., Skopinska-Rozewska, E., Sawicka, T., Sommer, E., Prosinska, J., and Drozd, J. The influence of Eleuterococcus senticosus on cellular and humoral immunological response of mice. Pol.J Vet.Sci. 2003;6(3 Suppl):37-39. View abstract.
  • Roxas, M. and Jurenka, J. Colds and influenza: a review of diagnosis and conventional, botanical, and nutritional considerations. Altern.Med Rev. 2007;12(1):25-48. View abstract.
  • Schmolz, M. W., Sacher, F., and Aicher, B. The synthesis of Rantes, G-CSF, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12 and IL-13 in human whole-blood cultures is modulated by an extract from Eleutherococcus senticosus L. roots. Phytother.Res 2001;15(3):268-270. View abstract.
  • Shakhova, E. G., Spasov, A. A., Ostrovskii, O. V., Konovalova, I. V., Chernikov, M. V., and Mel'nikova, G. I. [Effectiveness of using the drug Kan-Yang in children with acute respiratory viral infection (clinico-functional data)]. Vestn.Otorinolaringol. 2003;(3):48-50. View abstract.
  • Shohael, A. M, Hahn, E. J, and Paek, K. Y. Somatic embryogenesis and secondary metabolite production through bioreactor culture of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus). Acta Horticulturae 2007;764:181-185.
  • Smalinskiene, A., Lesauskaite, V., Zitkevicius, V., Savickiene, N., Savickas, A., Ryselis, S., Sadauskiene, I., and Ivanov, L. Estimation of the combined effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract and cadmium on liver cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2009;1171:314-320. View abstract.
  • Smith, M. and Boon, H. S. Counseling cancer patients about herbal medicine. Patient.Educ.Couns. 1999;38(2):109-120. View abstract.
  • Sohn, S. H, Jang, I. S, Moon, Y. S., Kim, Y. J, Lee, S. H, Ko, Y. H, Kang, S. Y, and Kang, H. K. Effect of dietary Siberian ginseng and Eucommia on broiler performance, serum biochemical profiles and telomere length. Korean Journal of Poultry Science 2008;35(3):283-290.
  • Steinmann, G. G., Esperester, A., and Joller, P. Immunopharmacological in vitro effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts. Arzneimittelforschung. 2001;51(1):76-83. View abstract.
  • Sun, H., Lv, H., Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Bi, K., and Cao, H. A rapid and sensitive UPLC-ESI MS method for analysis of isofraxidin, a natural antistress compound, and its metabolites in rat plasma. J Sep.Sci 2007;30(18):3202-3206. View abstract.
  • Tohda, C., Ichimura, M., Bai, Y., Tanaka, K., Zhu, S., and Komatsu, K. Inhibitory effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on amyloid beta(25-35)-induced neuritic atrophy and synaptic loss. J Pharmacol.Sci 2008;107(3):329-339. View abstract.
  • Tong, L., Huang, T. Y., and Li, J. L. [Effects of plant polysaccharides on cell proliferation and cell membrane contents of sialic acid, phospholipid and cholesterol in S 180 and K 562 cells]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14(8):482-484. View abstract.
  • Tournas, V. H., Katsoudas, E., and Miracco, E. J. Moulds, yeasts and aerobic plate counts in ginseng supplements. Int J Food Microbiol. 4-25-2006;108(2):178-181. View abstract.
  • Tseitlin, G. I. and Saltanov, A. I. [Indices of antistress activity of an Eleutherococcus extracts in lymphogranulomatosis after splenectomy]. Pediatriia. 1981;(5):25-27. View abstract.
  • Tutel'yan, A. V., Klebanov, G. I., Il'ina, S. E., and Lyubitskii, O. B. Comparative study of antioxidant properties of immunoregulatory peptides. Bull.Exp Biol Med 2003;136(2):155-158. View abstract.
  • Umeyama, A., Shoji, N., Takei, M., Endo, K., and Arihara, S. Ciwujianosides D1 and C1: powerful inhibitors of histamine release induced by anti-immunoglobulin E from rat peritoneal mast cells. J Pharm.Sci. 1992;81(7):661-662. View abstract.
  • Wagner, H., Proksch, A., Riess-Maurer, I., Vollmar, A., Odenthal, S., Stuppner, H., Jurcic, K., Le, Turdu M., and Heur, Y. H. [Immunostimulant action of polysaccharides (heteroglycans) from higher plants. Preliminary communication]. Arzneimittelforschung. 1984;34(6):659-661. View abstract.
  • Watanabe, K., Kamata, K., Sato, J., and Takahashi, T. Fundamental studies on the inhibitory action of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms on glucose absorption. J Ethnopharmacol. 10-28-2010;132(1):193-199. View abstract.
  • Weng S, Tang J, Wang G, Wang X, and Wang H. Comparison of the addition of Siberian ginseng (Acanthopanax senticosus) versus fluoxetine to lithium for the treatment of bipolar disorder in adolescents: a randomized, double-blind trial. Curr Ther Res 2007;68(4):280-290.
  • Williams M. Immunoprotection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. J Alt Comp Med 1995;13:9-12.
  • Wilson, L. Review of adaptogenic mechanisms: Eleuthrococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis and Withania somnifera. Australian Journal of Medical Herbalism 2007;19(3):126-131.
  • Won, K. M, Kim, P. K, Lee, S. H, and Park, S. I. Effect of the residuum extract of Siberian ginseng Eleutherococcus senticosus on non-specific immunity in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Fisheries Science 2008;74(3):635-641.
  • Wu JianGuo. Potential effects of climate change on the distributions of 5 plants in China. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany Beijing: Science Press 2010;18(5):511-522.
  • Wu, Y. N. X. Q. Wang Y. F. Zhao J. Z. Wang H. J. Chen and H. Z. Effect of Ciwujia (Radix acanthopanacis senticosus) preparation on human stamina. J.Hyg.Res. 1996;25:57-61.
  • Xie, S. S. [Immunoregulatory effect of polysaccharide of Acanthopanax senticosus (PAS). I. Immunological mechanism of PAS against cancer]. Zhonghua Zhong.Liu Za Zhi. 1989;11(5):338-340. View abstract.
  • Yamazaki, T. and Tokiwa, T. Isofraxidin, a coumarin component from Acanthopanax senticosus, inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-7 expression and cell invasion of human hepatoma cells. Biol Pharm Bull 2010;33(10):1716-1722. View abstract.
  • Yang, J. C. and Liu, J. S. [Dynamic study of the interferon-stimulating effect of a polysaccharide of Acanthopanax senticosus on leukemic cell culture]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1986;6(4):231-3, 197. View abstract.
  • Yao, L, Kim KyoungSook, Kang NamYoung, Lee YoungChoon, Chung EunSook, Cui Zheng, Kim CheorlHo, Han XiangFu, Kim JungIn, Yun YeongAe, and Lee JaiHeon. Inhibitory effect of a traditional Chinese formulation, Hyul-Tong-Ryung, on PMA-induced MMP-9 expression in MCF-7 human breast carcinoma cells. Journal of Traditional Medicines Sugitani: Medical and Pharmaceutical Society for Wakan-Yaku 2011;26(1):25-34.
  • Yarnell E and Abascal K. Holistic approaches to prostate cancer. Altern Complement Ther 2008;14(4):164-180.
  • Yi, J. M., Hong, S. H., Kim, J. H., Kim, H. K., Song, H. J., and Kim, H. M. Effect of Acanthopanax senticosus stem on mast cell-dependent anaphylaxis. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002;79(3):347-352. View abstract.
  • Yim, S, Jeong JuCheol, and Jeong JiHoon. Effect of an extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on restoration of hair loss in mouse. Chung-Ang Journal of Medicine Seoul: Institute of Medical Science, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine 2007;32(4):81-84.
  • Yu, C. Y., Kim, S. H., Lim, J. D., Kim, M. J., and Chung, I. M. Intraspecific relationship analysis by DNA markers and in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant activity in Eleutherococcus senticosus. Toxicol.In Vitro 2003;17(2):229-236. View abstract.
  • Zauski, D and Smolarz, H. D. Eleutherococcus senticosus - an exemplary adaptogenic plant. Postepy Fitoterapii Warszawa: Borgis Wydawnictwo Medyczne 2008;9(4):240-246.
  • Zauski, D, Smolarz, H. D, and Chomicki, A. TLC screening for eleutherosides B, E, and E1, and isofraxidin in the roots of six Eleutherococcus species cultivated in Poland. Acta Chromatographica 2010;22(4):581-589.
  • Zhang Yi. Advances in the clinical application of Aidi Injection. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2007;14(6):91-93.
  • Zhang, X. L., Ren, F., Huang, W., Ding, R. T., Zhou, Q. S., and Liu, X. W. Anti-fatigue activity of extracts of stem bark from Acanthopanax senticosus. Molecules. 2011;16(1):28-37. View abstract.
  • Zhang, Y. Advances in the clinical application of Aidi Injection. Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine Beijing: Chinese Journal of Information on Traditional Chinese Medicine 2007;14(6):91-93.
  • Zhou, YC, Yi ChuanZhu, and Hu YiXiu. Experimental study on the antiradiation and antifatigue effects of soft capsule made of cistanche and acanthopanax senticosus and jujube. China Tropical Medicine Hainan: Editorial Department of China Tropical Medicine 2008;8(1):35-37.
  • <p>Jacobsson, I., Jonsson, A. K., Gerden, B., and Hagg, S. Spontaneously reported adverse reactions in association with complementary and alternative medicine substances in Sweden. Pharmacoepidemiol.Drug Saf 2009;18(11):1039-1047.</p> View abstract.
  • Amaryan G, Astvatsatryan V, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, pilot clinical trial of ImmunoGuard--a standardized fixed combination of Andrographis paniculata Nees, with Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim, Schizandra chinensis Bail. and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts in patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever. Phytomedicine 2003;10:271-85. View abstract.
  • Asano K, Takahashi T, Miyashita M, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus extract on human physical working capacity. Planta Med 1986;175-7. View abstract.
  • Aslanyan G, Amroyan E, Gabrielyan E, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised study of single dose effects of ADAPT-232 on cognitive functions. Phytomedicine 2010;17:494-9. View abstract.
  • Awang DVC. Siberian ginseng toxicity may be case of mistaken identity (letter). CMAJ 1996;155:1237. View abstract.
  • Azizov, A. P. [Effects of eleutherococcus, elton, leuzea, and leveton on the blood coagulation system during training in athletes]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 1997;60(5):58-60. View abstract.
  • Bang JS, Chung YH, et al. Clinical effect of a polysaccharide-rich extract of Acanthopanax senticosus on alcohol hangover. Pharmazie. 2015 Apr;70(4):269-73.
  • Barth A, Hovhannisyan A, Jamalyan K, Narimanyan M. Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: A comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2015;22(13):1195-200. doi: 10.1016/j.phymed.2015.10.001. View abstract.
  • Bespalov, V. G., Aleksandrov, V. A., Iaremenko, K. V., Davydov, V. V., Lazareva, N. L., Limarenko, A. I., Slepian, L. I., Petrov, A. S., and Troian, D. N. [The inhibiting effect of phytoadaptogenic preparations from bioginseng, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Rhaponticum carthamoides on the development of nervous system tumors in rats induced by N-nitrosoethylurea]. Vopr Onkol 1992;38(9):1073-1080. View abstract.
  • Bucci LR. Selected herbals and human exercise performance. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;72:624S-36S.. View abstract.
  • Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, et al. Use of visual analogue scale measurements (VAS) to assess the effectiveness of standardized Andrographis paniculata extract SHA-10 in reducing the symptoms of common cold. A randomized, double-blind, placebo study. Phytomedicine 1999;6:217-23.. View abstract.
  • Caceres DD, Hancke JL, Burgos RA, Wikman GK. Prevention of common colds with Andrographis Paniculata dried extract: a pilot, double-blind trial. Phytomedicine 1997;4:101-4.
  • Cheuvroni SN, Moffatt RF, Biggerstaff KD, et al. Effects of Endurox on various metabolic responses to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S32.
  • Cicero AF, Derosa G, Brillante R, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus maxim.) on elderly quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Arch Gerontol Geriatr Suppl 2004;9:69-73. View abstract.
  • Coon JT, Ernst E. Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections: a systematic review of safety and efficacy. Planta Med 2004;70:293-8. View abstract.
  • Dasgupta A, Tso G, Wells A. Effect of Asian ginseng, Siberian ginseng, and Indian ayurvedic medicine Ashwagandha on serum digoxin measurement by Digoxin III, a new digoxin immunoassay. J Clin Lab Anal 2008;22:295-301. View abstract.
  • Dasgupta A, Wu S, Actor J, et al. Effect of Asian and Siberian ginseng on serum digoxin measurement by five digoxin immunoassays. Significant variation in digoxin-like immunoreactivity among commercial ginsengs. Am J Clin Pathol 2003;119:298-303. View abstract.
  • Dasgupta A. Herbal supplements and therapeutic drug monitoring: focus on digoxin immunoassays and interactions with St. John's wort. Ther Drug Monit. 2008;30(2):212-7. View abstract.
  • Davydov M, Krikorian AD. Eleutherococcus senticosus (Rupr. & Maxim.) Maxim. (Araliaceae) as an adaptogen: a closer look. J Ethnopharmacol 2000;72:345-93. View abstract.
  • Donovan JL, DeVane CL, Chavin KD, et al. Siberian Ginseng (Eleutheroccus senticosus) Effects on CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 Activity in Normal Volunteers. Drug Metab Dispos 2003;31:519-22.. View abstract.
  • Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1996;28:482-9. View abstract.
  • Dusman K, Plowman SA, McCarthy K, et al. The effects of Endurox on the physiological responses to stair-stepping exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S323.
  • Eagon PK, Elm MS, Hunter DS, et al. Medicinal herbs: modulation of estrogen action. Era of Hope Mtg, Dept Defense; Breast Cancer Res Prog, Atlanta, GA 2000;Jun 8-11.
  • Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab 2000;10:444-51. View abstract.
  • Freye E, GLeske J. Siberian ginseng results in beneficial effects on glucose metabolism in diabetes type 2 patients: a double blind placebo-controlled study in comparison to panax ginseng. Int J Clin Nutr. 2013;1(1):11-17.
  • Fuchikami H, Satoh H, Tsujimoto M, Ohdo S, Ohtani H, Sawada Y. Effects of herbal extracts on the function of human organic anion-transporting polypeptide OATP-B. Drug Metab Dispos 2006;34:577-82. View abstract.
  • Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine 2002;9:589-97.. View abstract.
  • Glatthaar-Saalmuller B, Sacher F, Esperester A. Antiviral activity of an extract derived from roots of Eleutherococcus senticosus. Antiviral Res 2001;50:223-8. View abstract.
  • Hacker B, Medon PJ. Cytotoxic effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus aqueous extracts in combination with N6-(delta 2-isopentenyl)-adenosine and 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine against L1210 leukemia cells. J Pharm Sci 1984;73:270-2. View abstract.
  • Han L, Cai D. [Clinical and experimental study on treatment of acute cerebral infarction with Acanthopanax Injection]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1998;18:472-4. View abstract.
  • Hancke J, Burgos R, Caceres D, Wikman G. A double-blind study with a new monodrug Kan Jang: decrease of symptoms and improvement in the recovery from common colds. Phytotherapy Res 1995;9:559-62.
  • Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, et al. Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:1101-6. View abstract.
  • Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Zhou L, et al. Effects of Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) on c-DNA-expressed P450 drug metabolizing enzymes. Alt Ther 2001;7:S14.
  • Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med 2004;34:51-61. View abstract.
  • Hikino H, Takahashi M, Otake K, Konno C. Isolation and hypoglycemic activity of eleutherans A, B, C, D, E, F, and G: glycans of Eleutherococcus senticosus roots. J Nat Prod 1986;49:293-7. View abstract.
  • Koren G, Randor S, Martin S, Danneman D. Maternal ginseng use associated with neonatal androgenization. JAMA 1990;264:2866. View abstract.
  • Kormosh, N., Laktionov, K., and Antoshechkina, M. Effect of a combination of extract from several plants on cell-mediated and humoral immunity of patients with advanced ovarian cancer. Phytother Res 2006;20(5):424-425. View abstract.
  • Kulichenko LL, Kireyeva LV, Malyshkina EN, Wikman G. A Randomized, Controlled Study of Kan Jang versus Amantadine in the Treatment of Influenza in Volgograd. J Herb Pharmacother 2003;3:77-92. View abstract.
  • Kuo J, Chen KW, Cheng IS, et al. The effect of eight weeks of supplementation with Eleutherococcus senticosus on endurance capacity and metabolism in human. Chin J Physiol 2010;53:105-11. View abstract.
  • Martinez, B. and Staba, E. J. The physiological effects of Aralia, Panax and Eleutherococcus on exercised rats. Jpn J Pharmacol 1984;35(2):79-85. View abstract.
  • Maslov, L. N. and Guzarova, N. V. [Cardioprotective and antiarrhythmic properties of preparations from Leuzea carthamoides, Aralia mandshurica, and Eleutherococcus senticosus]. Eksp Klin Farmakol 2007;70(6):48-54. View abstract.
  • McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. CMAJ 1996;155:293-5. View abstract.
  • Medon PJ, Ferguson PW, Watson CF. Effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts on hexobarbital metabolism in vivo and in vitro. J Ethnopharmacol 1984;10:235-41. View abstract.
  • Melchior J, Palm S, Wikman G. Controlled clinical study of standardized Andrographis paniculata in common cold- a pilot trial. Phytomedicine 1996;97;3:315-8.
  • Melchoir J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan Jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine 2000;7:341-50. View abstract.
  • Mills S, Bone K. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. London: Churchill Livingstone, 2000.
  • Poolsup N, Suthisisang C, Prathanturarug S, et al. Andrographis paniculata in the symptomatic treatment of uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infection: systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Clin Pharm Ther 2004;29:37-45. View abstract.
  • Schaffler K, Wolf OT, Burkart M. No benefit adding Eleutherococcus senticosus to stress management training in stress-related fatigue/weakness, impaired work or concentration, a randomized controlled study. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2013 Jul;46(5):181-90.
  • Schutgens FW, Neogi P, van Wijk EP, et al. The influence of adaptogens on ultraweak biophoton emission: a pilot-experiment. Phytother Res 2009;23:1103-8. View abstract.
  • Shang SY, Ma YS, Wang SS. [Effect of eleutherosides on ventricular late potential with coronary heart disease and myocarditis]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1991;11:280-1, 261. View abstract.
  • Shen ML, Zhai SK, Chen HL, Immunomopharmacological effects of polysaccharides from Acanthopanax senticosus on experimental animals. Int J Immunopharmacol 1991;13:549-54. View abstract.
  • Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. J Am Coll Nutr 2004;23:248-58. View abstract.
  • Smeltzer KD, Gretebeck PJ. Effect of radix Acanthopanax senticosus on submaximal running performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1998;30 Suppl:S278.
  • Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, Wikman G. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res 2004;18:47-53. View abstract.
  • Sui DY, Lu ZZ, Li SH, Cai Y. [Hypoglycemic effect of saponin isolated from leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxin.) Harms]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1994;19:683-5, 703. View abstract.
  • Sui DY, Lu ZZ, Ma LN, Fan ZG. [Effects of the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus (Rupr. et Maxim.) Harms. On myocardial infarct size in acute ischemic dogs]. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 1994;19:746-7, 764. View abstract.
  • Szolomicki S, Samochowiec L, Wojcicki J, Drozdzik M. The influence of active components of Eleutherococcus senticosus on cellular defense and physical fitness in man. Phytother Res 2000;14:30-5. View abstract.
  • Takahashi T, Kaku T, Sato T, et al. Effects of Acanthopanax senticosus HARMS extract on drug transport in human intestinal cell line Caco-2. J Nat Med. 2010;64(1):55-62. View abstract.
  • Thamlikitkul V, Dechatiwongse T, Theerapong S, et al. Efficacy of Andrographis paniculata, Nees for pharyngotonsillitis in adults. J Med Assoc Thai 1991;74:437-42. View abstract.
  • Tohda C, Matsui M, Inada Y, et al. Combined Treatment with Two Water Extracts of Eleutherococcus senticosus Leaf and Rhizome of Drynaria fortunei Enhances Cognitive Function: A Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Double-Blind Study in Healthy Adults. Nutrients. 2020 Jan 23;12(2). pii: E303. View abstract.
  • U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Detention Without Physical Examination of Foods Labeled As Being Or Containing Siberian Ginseng. Washington, DC: U.S. Food and Drug Administration. September 15, 2015. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/cms_ia/importalert_143.html. Accessed December 2019.
  • Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. The efficacy of ginseng. A systemic review of randomized clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1999;55:567-75. View abstract.
  • Waller DP, Martin AM, Farnsworth NR, Awang DV. Lack of androgenicity of Siberian ginseng. JAMA 1992;267:2329. View abstract.
  • Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Altern Complem Med 1995;13:9-12.
  • Winther K, Ranlov C, Rein E, et al. Russian root (Siberian ginseng) improves cognitive functions in middle-aged people, whereas Ginkgo biloba seems effective only in the elderly. J Neurological Sci 1997;150:S90.
  • Yun-Choi HS, Kim JH, Lee JR. Potential inhibitors of platelet aggregation from plant sources, III. J Nat Prod 1987;50:1059-64. View abstract.

Vitamins Survey

Have you ever purchased ELEUTHERO?

Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)

Vitamins Survey

Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?

Do you buy vitamins online or instore?

What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)

This survey is being conducted by the WebMD marketing sciences department.Read More

More Resources for ELEUTHERO

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.