Along with medication, ongoing psychotherapy, or "talk" therapy, is
an important part of treatment for bipolar disorder. During therapy, you can
discuss feelings, thoughts, and behaviors that cause you problems. Talk therapy
can help you understand and ultimately master any problems that hurt your
ability to function well in life. It also helps you stay on your medication --
and helps you deal with effects of bipolar disorder on your social and work
life. It can help you maintain a positive self-image.
Types of psychotherapy used to treat bipolar disorder include:
Behavioral therapy. This focuses on behaviors that
Cognitive therapy. This type of approach involves learning
to identify and modify the patterns of thinking that accompany mood
Interpersonal therapy. This involves relationships and
aims to reduce strains that the illness may place upon them.
Social rhythm therapy. This helps you develop and maintain
Medication can be like a pair of glasses. Bipolar disorder distorts your view of things; medication may allow you to see clearly again.
Which bipolar medication is best?
Doctors use a number of different classes and brands of drugs to treat bipolar disorder. Treatment for bipolar mania may include lithium, certain anticonvulsants, antipsychotics, and sometimes benzodiazepines.
Many people who have bipolar disorder keep taking these medications for years or decades after their last manic episode to stay healthy. This is called maintenance therapy for bipolar disorder.
During a period of bipolar depression, you might need other medications. Lithium and other mood stabilizers, certain antipsychotic drugs that treat bipolar depression, and sometimes antidepressants are used to treat bipolar depression.
For mania, depression, or maintenance, these drugs might be used alone or in combinations.
What is a mood-stabilizing medication?
Mood stabilizers are medicines that treat and prevent highs (manic or hypomanic episodes) and lows (depressive episodes). They also help to minimize the negative effects of mood states on functioning at work or school or in social situations. Technically, the FDA does not classify medicines as "mood stabilizers." Rather, doctors and patients more informally use that term to mean any medicine that has anti-manic or antidepressant properties and does not cause worsening of mood states over time.
Not all drugs have equal anti-manic and antidepressant effects. Some (such as lithium) are more effective at treating manias than depressions. Others (such as lamotrigine) may be more useful for depressive than manic symptoms. Also, the term "mood stabilizer" can sometimes be misleading; medicines we call "mood stabilizers" actually have not been studied to treat day-to-day or moment-to-moment mood swings. Rather, their primary use is in treating full episodes of mania/hypomania or depression that each lasts for several days or weeks at a time.