When most people hear "diabetes," they think of diabetes mellitus. That's a condition in which blood sugars are chronically elevated. In fact, diabetes is a general term for conditions that cause increased urine production. And when it comes to increased urine production, diabetes insipidus takes the cake.
Diabetes insipidus results in excessive thirst and urination. The reason is problems with a particular hormone or its receptor. Diabetes insipidus increases the risk for dehydration. Here, WebMD takes a look at this uncommon and inconvenient medical condition.
Living with a chronic illness like type 2 diabetes can seem overwhelming at times. Sometimes you might feel that no one understands the stress that you feel day after day. If prolonged, these overwhelming feelings of anxiety, stress, and isolation can become a barricade in your quest for wellness.
It does not have to be this way. You must seek support to maintain control of your type 2 diabetes and to enjoy your life to the fullest. Whether your main support comes from your spouse, a close friend,...
Diabetes insipidus is caused by problems related to a hormone called antidiuretic hormone or its receptor. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is produced in a part of the brain called the hypothalamus. It's stored in the brain's pituitary gland. Release of ADH causes the kidneys to hold onto water, which makes urine more concentrated.
Normally, if we are thirsty or slightly dehydrated, ADH levels rise. The kidneys reabsorb more water and excrete concentrated urine. If, on the other hand, we chugged a half-gallon of water (don't try this at home), ADH levels would fall. Clear, dilute urine would pass.
Diabetes insipidus can be caused by either of two problems with ADH. One is too little ADH is produced. When that's the case, the condition is called central diabetes insipidus. The other is there's enough ADH produced, but the kidneys can't respond to it. That condition is known as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.
In either form of diabetes insipidus, the result is the same. The kidneys can't do their job of conserving water. Even when a person with diabetes insipidus is dehydrated, the kidneys will excrete abundant, dilute urine.
In some people, these symptoms can become extreme, causing dehydration.
Excessive fluid losses can also cause electrolyte imbalances. Possible symptoms include:
But why "insipidus?" People with diabetes insipidus aren't insipid, but their urine is. Insipid can mean dull or lacking flavor. Believe it or not, doctors long ago would taste urine to detect illness. Unlike diabetes mellitus, which results in sweet tasting urine, diabetes insipidus creates watery, flavor-free urine.
How Is Diabetes Insipidus Diagnosed?
People with diabetes insipidus often seek medical attention because of their symptoms of excessive thirst and urination.
Diagnosing diabetes insipidus requires serial measurements of blood and urine in a doctor's office over several hours. The person goes without water during this time and gets progressively thirstier. The concentrations of sodium in the blood and urine are determined over time. An ADH substitute might then be administered to see if the person's kidneys respond to it by concentrating the urine. The laboratory values and response to ADH can make the diagnosis.
Get the latest Diabetes newsletter delivered to your inbox!
Your level is currently
If the level is below 70 and you are experiencing symptoms such as shaking, sweating or difficulty thinking, you will need to raise the number immediately. A quick solution is to eat a few pieces of hard candy or 1 tablespoon of sugar or honey. Recheck your numbers again in 15 minutes to see if the number has gone up. If not, repeat the steps above or call your doctor.
People who experience hypoglycemia several times in a week should call their health care provider. It's important to monitor your levels each day so you can make sure your numbers are within the range. If you are pregnant always consult with your health care provider.
Congratulations on taking steps to manage your health.
However, it's important to continue to track your numbers so that you can make lifestyle changes if needed. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Your level is high if this reading was taken before eating. Aim for 70-130 before meals and less than 180 two hours after meals.
Even if your number is high, it's not too late for you to take control of your health and lower your blood sugar.
One of the first steps is to monitor your levels each day. If you are pregnant always consult with your physician.
Thank you for signing up for the WebMD Diabetes Newsletter!
You'll find tips and tricks as well as the latest news and research on Diabetes.
Did You Know Your Lifestyle Choices
Affect Your Blood Sugar?
Use the Blood Glucose Tracker to monitor
how well you manage your blood sugar over time.