Regulating Sugar: Perspective
"The commentary should be a wake-up call to policymakers," says Marion Nestle, PhD, MPH, the Paulette Goddard professor of nutrition, food studies, and public health at New York University.
She reviewed the commentary for WebMD. "He has the science to back it up," she says of Lustig's suggestion that it is time to regulate sugar.
"That Americans would be healthier consuming less sugars is obvious and easily demonstrated," Nestle tells WebMD. "Sugars themselves are not harmful if eaten with other nutrients, as in fruits, and in diets that balance calories. But it's hard to balance calories when eating a lot of sugars."
Some people eat so much sugar that it adds up to half their daily calorie limit for maintaining weight, Nestle tells WebMD.
"At the very least, the FDA should require listing added sugars on package labels," Nestle says.
A good first step for anyone trying to reduce sugar, Nestle says, is to cut back on or cut out sugary drinks.
Sugar: How to Regulate?
Models used to regulate alcohol and tobacco could work for sugar, Lustig says.
- Tax sugary foods. (The soda tax is already being considered, he notes. To work, he says the tax must be hefty, such as a $1 tax on a $1 can of soda.)
- Limit availability. Licensing requirements on vending machines could be stricter.
- Set an age limit for the purchase of sugary drinks and foods.
The FDA could help, he says, by removing fructose from its GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) list. This allows food makers to add it without premarket review and approval.
Spelling out the amount of added sugars on the Nutrition Facts label would also help, Lustig says. Although total sugars are listed on the label, it does not spell out the amount of added and the amount of natural.
Regulating Sugar: FDA Response
"A change in the GRAS status for sugar is not currently under consideration," says Douglas Karas, an FDA spokesperson.
Consumers can inspect the ingredients list to find out if a product has added sugars, he says. Among the various names for added sugars, he says, are:
- Corn syrup
- High-fructose corn syrup
- Fruit juice concentrate
- Maple syrup