Ankle Injuries: Causes and Treatments
How Does the Doctor Diagnose an Ankle Injury?
The first thing a doctor will do is ask questions about how the injury occurred. Then the doctor will examine the ankle, noting the amount of swelling and bruising. The physical examination of the ankle may be painful because the doctor needs to move the ankle to evaluate the pain and swelling in order to make a proper diagnosis.
The doctor may order an ankle X-ray to determine whether there are any broken bones. In addition to an ankle X-ray, your doctor may ask for X-rays of the leg and foot to determine whether there may be other related injuries. If the doctor suspects a stress fracture, the doctor will ask for other imaging scans such as an MRI, which will show more detail about the injury. If there is a fracture, the doctor may also ask for a stress test, which is a special X-ray taken with pressure applied to the joint. This will help the doctor determine whether surgery is needed.
For most ankle injuries, pain is controlled by using an over-the-counter medication such as acetaminophen or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug such as ibuprofen. The specific treatment of the injury depends on the type of injury.
Treatment of Fractures
Fractures can be treated either surgically or nonsurgically. The doctor may treat the break without surgery by immobilizing the ankle if only one bone is broken, and if the bones are not out of place and the ankle is stable. Typically the doctor will do this by putting on a brace that works as a splint or by putting on a cast. If the ankle is unstable, the fracture will be treated surgically. Often, the ankle is made stable by using a metal plate and screws to hold the bones in place. Following the surgery, the ankle is protected with a splint until the swelling goes down and then with a cast.
It usually takes at least six weeks for the bones to heal. Your doctor will probably ask you to keep weight off the ankle during that time so the bones can heal in the proper alignment. Ligaments and tendons can take longer to heal after a fracture is fully mended. It can take as long as two years to completely recover full painfree motion and strength after an ankle fracture, although most people are able to resume their normal daily routine within three to four months.
After the doctor has determined it is safe for you to start moving your ankle, you may need physical therapy to provide gait training, balance, strengthening, and mobility exercises. The therapist will develop a home program that you can use to regain your previous normal function. It can take several months to return to a normal walking pattern without limping.