RHUBARB

OTHER NAME(S):

Chinese Rhubarb, Da Huang, Garden Rhubarb, Himalayan Rhubarb, Indian Rhubarb, Medicinal Rhubarb, Radix et Rhizoma Rhei, Rewandchini, Rhei, Rhei Radix, Rheum australe, Rheum emodi, Rheum officinale, Rheum palmatum, Rheum tanguticum, Rhubarbe, Rhubarbe de Chine, Rhubarbe Indienne, Rhubarbe Médicinale, Rhubarbe Palmée, Rhubarbe Potagère, Rhubarbe Turque, Ruibarbo, Tai Huang, Turkey Rhubarb.<br/><br/>

Overview

Overview Information

Rhubarb is a plant. The root and underground stem (rhizome) are used to make medicine.

Rhubarb is used primarily for digestive complaints including constipation, diarrhea, heartburn, stomach pain, gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, and preparation for certain GI diagnostic procedures. Some people use rhubarb so they have to strain less during bowel movements; this reduces pain from hemorrhoids or tears in the skin lining the anal canal (anal fissures).

Rhubarb is sometimes applied to the skin to treat cold sores.

In food, rhubarb stems are eaten in pie and other recipes. Rhubarb is also used as a flavoring agent.

How does it work?

Rhubarb contains several chemicals which might help heal cold sores.

Uses

Uses & Effectiveness?

Possibly Effective for

Insufficient Evidence for

  • Constipation. Early research suggests that taking rhubarb and Glauber's salt mixture improves constipation.
  • Gum disease. Early research suggests that rinsing with a rhubarb extract can help treat gum disease.
  • Gonorrhea. Early research suggests that taking tablets that contain rhubarb extract might reduce symptoms of gonorrhea.
  • High cholesterol. Early research suggests that taking rhubarb, alone or with water plantain, can reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol in people with high cholesterol.
  • Cancer affecting the area behind the nose (nasopharyngeal cancer). Early research suggests that taking a specific product containing rhubarb and other herbs (Shenlong) along with radiation therapy does not improve healing in people with nasopharyngeal cancer.
  • Kidney disease (nephritic syndrome). Early research suggests that taking a combination of 10 herbs including rhubarb daily for 3 months might improve kidney function in people with glomerulonephritis.
  • Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Early research suggests that taking a specific Chinese herbal medicine containing rhubarb, giant knotweed, dried green orange peel, and dried old orange peel (Danning Pian) might improve liver function in people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
  • Obesity. Some early research suggests that taking rhubarb extract 1-3 times daily for up to 3 months might reduce body weight in obese people. However, other research shows that taking rhubarb with other herbs does not reduce weight.
  • High blood pressure during pregnancy. Early research shows that taking rhubarb extract daily starting 28 weeks into pregnancy and continuing until delivery can reduce the risk of high blood pressure during pregnancy.
  • Life-threatening infection (sepsis). Early research suggests that taking rhubarb powder along with standard treatments might help cure and reduce the risk of death from a life-threatening infection called sepsis.
  • Recovery after surgery. Early research suggests that adding rhubarb to intravenous (IV) nutrition in people undergoing surgery for stomach cancer can improve recovery.
  • Indigestion.
  • Stomach pain.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Other conditions.
More evidence is needed to rate the effectiveness of rhubarb for these uses.

Side Effects

Side Effects & Safety

Rhubarb is LIKELY SAFE when the root is consumed as food. It is POSSIBLY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth in medicinal amounts for up to 3 months.

Rhubarb can cause some side effects such as stomach and intestinal pain, watery diarrhea, and uterine contractions. Long-term use can result in muscular weakness, bone loss, potassium loss, and irregular heart rhythm.

There is a report of kidney failure in someone who took a product containing rhubarb. But it's not known for sure if rhubarb was the actual cause of kidney failure.

Special Precautions & Warnings:

Children: Rhubarb is POSSIBLY UNSAFE for children. There is one report of a 4-year-old who ate rhubarb leaves and died. Rhubarb leaves contain a lot of oxalic acid, which can be deadly if taken in large enough doses. Because of their small size, children are at highest risk for oxalic poisoning after eating rhubarb leaves.

Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Rhubarb is POSSIBLY UNSAFE when used in amounts greater than those found in foods.

Diarrhea or constipation: Rhubarb can make diarrhea or constipation worse, depending on the preparation used.

Gastrointestinal (GI) conditions: Don't take rhubarb if you have a bowel obstruction; appendicitis; unexplained stomach pain; or inflammatory conditions of the intestines including Crohn's disease, colitis, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Kidney disease: There is a chemical in rhubarb that might harm the kidneys. In fact, a supplement that contained rhubarb has been linked to one report of kidney failure. If you already have kidney disease, don't risk making it worse by taking rhubarb.

Kidney stones: Rhubarb contains a chemical that the body can convert into kidney stones. If you have ever had kidney stones, don't take rhubarb.

Liver problems: Rhubarb can make liver function worse in people who already have liver problems. People who have liver problems should avoid rhubarb.

Interactions

Interactions?

Moderate Interaction

Be cautious with this combination

!
  • Digoxin (Lanoxin) interacts with RHUBARB

    Rhubarb is a type of laxative called a stimulant laxative. Stimulant laxatives can decrease potassium levels in the body. Low potassium levels can increase the risk of side effects of digoxin (Lanoxin).

  • Medications for inflammation (Corticosteroids) interacts with RHUBARB

    Some medications for inflammation can decrease potassium in the body. Rhubarb is a type of laxative that might also decrease potassium in the body. Taking rhubarb along with some medications for inflammation might decrease potassium in the body too much.<br/><br/> Some medications for inflammation include dexamethasone (Decadron), hydrocortisone (Cortef), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and others.

  • Medications taken by mouth (Oral drugs) interacts with RHUBARB

    Rhubarb is a laxative. Laxatives can decrease how much medicine your body absorbs. Decreasing how much medicine your body absorbs can decrease the effectiveness of your medication.

  • Medications that can harm the kidneys (Nephrotoxic Drugs) interacts with RHUBARB

    Taking rhubarb might harm the kidneys in some people. Some medications can also harm the kidneys. Taking rhubarb with medications that can harm the kidneys might increase the chance of kidney damage.<br/><br/> Some of these medications that can harm the kidneys include cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune); aminoglycosides including amikacin (Amikin), gentamicin (Garamycin, Gentak, others), and tobramycin (Nebcin, others); nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) including ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, Nuprin, others), indomethacin (Indocin), naproxen (Aleve, Anaprox, Naprelan, Naprosyn), piroxicam (Feldene); and numerous others.

  • Stimulant laxatives interacts with RHUBARB

    Rhubarb is a type of laxative called a stimulant laxative. Stimulant laxatives speed up the bowels. Taking rhubarb along with other stimulant laxatives could speed up the bowels too much and cause dehydration and low minerals in the body.<br/><br/> Some stimulant laxatives include bisacodyl (Correctol, Dulcolax), cascara, castor oil (Purge), senna (Senokot), and others.

  • Warfarin (Coumadin) interacts with RHUBARB

    Rhubarb can work as a laxative. In some people rhubarb can cause diarrhea. Diarrhea can increase the effects of warfarin and increase the risk of bleeding. If you take warfarin do not to take excessive amounts of rhubarb.

  • Water pills (Diuretic drugs) interacts with RHUBARB

    Rhubarb is a laxative. Some laxatives can decrease potassium in the body. "Water pills" can also decrease potassium in the body. Taking rhubarb along with "water pills" might decrease potassium in the body too much.<br/><br/> Some "water pills" that can decrease potassium include chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Thalitone), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Microzide), and others.

Dosing

Dosing

The following doses have been studied in scientific research:

APPLIED TO THE SKIN:

  • For treatment of cold sores: a cream containing 23 mg/gram each of rhubarb extract and sage extract applied every 2 to 4 hours while awake, with treatment starting within one day of symptom appearance and continuing for 10 to 14 days.

View References

REFERENCES:

  • Wang, Y. J., Xu, L., and Cheng, X. X. [Clinical study on niaodujing in treating chronic renal failure]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1996;16(11):649-651. View abstract.
  • Wang, Z. and Song, H. [Clinical observation on therapeutical effect of prepared rhubarb in treating pregnancy induced hypertension]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1999;19(12):725-727. View abstract.
  • Wang, Z., Wang, G., Xu, H., and Wang, P. [Anti-herpes virus action of ethanol-extract from the root and rhizome of Rheum officinale Baill.]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1996;21(6):364-6, 384. View abstract.
  • Wei, J., Ni, L., and Yao, J. [Experimental treatment of rhubarb on mesangio-proliferative glomerulonephritis in rats]. Zhonghua Nei Ke.Za Zhi. 1997;36(2):87-89. View abstract.
  • Wu, C. X. [A preliminary study on the effect of a single Rheum officinale in heavy doses in the treatment of acute icteric hepatitis]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1984;4(2):88-89. View abstract.
  • Xiao-dong Z, An-yu W, Shao-feng W, and et al. Clinical study on effect of shenlong oral liquid combined with radiotherapy in treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine 2001;7(4):268-272.
  • Xin SF, Zhuang H, Mo QY, and et al. [Clinical observation on patients with constipation using Rhubarb and Mangxiao]. Chinese Journal of Nursing 1995;7(30):420-422.
  • Xu, F. and Fu, H. M. [Qing-shen tiao-zhi tablet in the treatment of hyperlipemia in the middle and old aged]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1993;13(11):655-7, 643. View abstract.
  • Yan, M., Zhang, L. Y., Sun, L. X., Jiang, Z. Z., and Xiao, X. H. Nephrotoxicity study of total rhubarb anthraquinones on Sprague Dawley rats using DNA microarrays. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-15-2006; View abstract.
  • Yang, J. W. and Li, L. S. [Effects of Rheum on renal hypertrophy and hyperfiltration of experimental diabetes in rat]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1993;13(5):286-8, 261-2. View abstract.
  • Yang, N., Liu, X., and Lin, Q. [Clinical study on effect of Chinese herbal medicine combined with hemodialysis in treating uremia]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1998;18(12):712-714. View abstract.
  • Yarnell E. Rhubarb and diabetic nephropathy. Quarterly Review of Natural Medicine 1997;unlisted:215.
  • Yokozawa, T., Fujioka, K., Oura, H., Nonaka, G., and Nishioka, I. Effects of rhubarb tannins on renal function in rats with renal failure. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1993;35(1):13-18. View abstract.
  • Zhang, G. and el Nahas, A. M. The effect of rhubarb extract on experimental renal fibrosis. Nephrol.Dial.Transplant. 1996;11(1):186-190. View abstract.
  • Zhang, J. H., Li, L. S., and Zhang, M. Clinical effects of rheum and captopril on preventing progression of chronic renal failure. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1990;103(10):788-793. View abstract.
  • Zhang, JH, Yao, XD, Song, Y, and et al. [Long-term treating effects of rhubarb and captopril in delaying the progression of renal failure]. Chinese Kidney Disease Journal 1993;9(4):197-201.
  • Zhang, S. J., Zhang, S. Y., Wang, L., and Zhu, B. [Studies on polysaccharide of Rheum palmatum L.]. Zhongguo Zhong.Yao Za Zhi. 1993;18(11):679-81, 703. View abstract.
  • Zhang, W. L. [Treatment of hemorrhage of the upper gastro-intestinal tract with the Chinese drug hai huang san. Analysis of 50 cases]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1986;6(11):665-6, 644. View abstract.
  • Zhang, Z. J., Cheng, W. W., and Yang, Y. M. [Low-dose of processed rhubarb in preventing pregnancy induced hypertension]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke.Za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology] 1994;29(8):463-4, 509. View abstract.
  • Zheng, F. [Effect of Rheum officinal on the proliferation of renal tubular cells in vitro]. Zhonghua Yi.Xue.Za Zhi. 1993;73(6):343-5, 380-1. View abstract.
  • Zhou, H. and Jiao, D. [312 cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer bleeding treated with 3 kinds of alcoholic extract rhubarb tablets]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1990;10(3):150-152, 131-132. View abstract.
  • Ma, L. [Experimental study on the immunomodulatory effects of rhubarb]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1991;11(7):418-9, 390. View abstract.
  • Mao QL. Clinical observation on 40 patients with uremia treated by colonic dialysis with rhubarb. Shanxi Journal of Nursing 1997;11(6):262-263.
  • Matsuda, H., Morikawa, T., Toguchida, I., Park, J. Y., Harima, S., and Yoshikawa, M. Antioxidant constituents from rhubarb: structural requirements of stilbenes for the activity and structures of two new anthraquinone glucosides. Bioorg.Med Chem 2001;9(1):41-50. View abstract.
  • Matsuda, H., Tomohiro, N., Hiraba, K., Harima, S., Ko, S., Matsuo, K., Yoshikawa, M., and Kubo, M. Study on anti-Oketsu activity of rhubarb II. Anti-allergic effects of stilbene components from Rhei undulati Rhizoma (dried rhizome of Rheum undulatum cultivated in Korea). Biol Pharm Bull. 2001;24(3):264-267. View abstract.
  • Mitsuma, T., Yokozawa, T., Oura, H., and Terasawa, K. [Rhubarb therapy in patients with chronic renal failure (Part 2)]. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1987;29(2):195-207. View abstract.
  • Odenthal, K. P. and Ziegler, D. In vitro effects of anthraquinones on rat intestine and uterus. Pharmacology 1988;36 Suppl 1:57-65. View abstract.
  • Oscaby, F. [A chlorhexidine-rhubarb extract mixture for gingival inflammation]. Chir Dent.Fr. 1-30-1992;62(596):23-25. View abstract.
  • Pelletier, J. P., Yaron, M., Haraoui, B., Cohen, P., Nahir, M. A., Choquette, D., Wigler, I., Rosner, I. A., and Beaulieu, A. D. Efficacy and safety of diacerein in osteoarthritis of the knee: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The Diacerein Study Group. Arthritis Rheum 2000;43(10):2339-2348. View abstract.
  • Peng, S. M., Wang, S. Z., and Zhao, J. P. [Effect of rhubarb on inflammatory cytokines and complements in patients with systemic inflammation reaction syndrome and its significance]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2002;22(4):264-266. View abstract.
  • Qian GP. [Retention enema with Rheum decoction in treating renal failure]. J.Tradit Chin Med 1980;21(11):18.
  • Ren, S. [Role of a virus in hemorrhagic pancreatitis and the therapeutic effect of rhubarb]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1990;10(3):162-3, 133. View abstract.
  • Renggli, H. [Gingivitis-and plaque-inhibiting action of Pyralvex Berna and its components]. SSO.Schweiz.Monatsschr.Zahnheilkd. 1980;90(8):718-724. View abstract.
  • Sanada, H. [Study on the clinical effect of rhubarb on nitrogen-metabolism abnormality due to chronic renal failure and its mechanism]. Nippon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1996;38(8):379-387. View abstract.
  • Sanz, P. and Reig, R. Clinical and pathological findings in fatal plant oxalosis. A review. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 1992;13(4):342-345. View abstract.
  • Sauro, S., Gandolfi, M. G., Prati, C., and Mongiorgi, R. Oxalate-containing phytocomplexes as dentine desensitisers: An in vitro study. Arch Oral Biol 4-5-2006; View abstract.
  • Scholze, B., Lischke, J., Hubner, D., Meyer, R. A., and Schafer, R. [Fluoride poisoning caused by rhubarb fruit juice--case report]. Offentl.Gesundheitswes. 1991;53(4):181-183. View abstract.
  • Sheng, Z. L., Li, N. Y., and Ge, X. P. [Clinical study of baoyuan dahuang decoction in the treatment of chronic renal failure]. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi 1994;14(5):268-70, 259. View abstract.
  • Siegers, C. P., Hertzberg-Lottin, E., Otte, M., and Schneider, B. Anthranoid laxative abuse--a risk for colorectal cancer? Gut 1993;34(8):1099-1101. View abstract.
  • Song, H., Wang, Z., and Zhang, F. [Investigation of urinary interleukin-6 level in chronic renal failure patients and the influence of Rheum palmatum in treating it]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2000;20(2):107-109. View abstract.
  • Sun, D. A. [Clinical evaluation of crude rhubarb powder and cimetidine in upper gastrointestinal bleeding]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.[Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine] 1986;6(8):458-459, 451. View abstract.
  • Sun, Y., Chen, B., and Jia, Q. [Clinical effect of Xinqingning combined low dose continuous gastrointestinal dialysis in treating uremia]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2000;20(9):660-663. View abstract.
  • Tian, J., Chen, X. M., and Li, L. S. [Effects of Cordyceps sinensis, rhubarb and serum renotropin on tubular epithelial cell growth]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1991;11(9):547-9, 518. View abstract.
  • Tian, J., Du, H., Yang, H., Liu, X., and Li, Z. A clinical study on compound da huang (radix et Rhizoma rhei) preparations for improvement of senile persons' memory ability. J Tradit.Chin Med 1997;17(3):168-173. View abstract.
  • Tseng, S. H., Lee, H. H., Chen, L. G., Wu, C. H., and Wang, C. C. Effects of three purgative decoctions on inflammatory mediators. J Ethnopharmacol. 4-21-2006;105(1-2):118-124. View abstract.
  • Uchida, S., Ikari, N., Ohta, H., Niwa, M., Nonaka, G., Nishioka, I., and Ozaki, M. Inhibitory effects of condensed tannins on angiotensin converting enzyme. Jpn J Pharmacol 1987;43(2):242-246. View abstract.
  • Wang, H. H. Antitrichomonal action of emodin in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1993;40(2):111-116. View abstract.
  • Albrecht UW. [The efficacy and tolerability of Pyralvex solution and Pyralvex Gel in the treatment of gingivitis. Results of double-blind, randomised, controlled clinical trials]. Der Freie Zahnarzt 1997;9:76-80.
  • Basu TK, Ooraikul B, and Garg M. The lipid-lowering effects of rhubarb stalk fiber: A new source of dietary fiber. Nutrition Reserach 1993;13:1017-1024.
  • Bi ZQ, Kang ZQ, and Zheng FL. [Preliminary study of Rheum enema in the treatment of chronic renal failure]. J.Tradit Chin Med 1981;3:211-213.
  • Bi, Z. Q. [Nitrogen balance in uremic patients treated with rhubarb retention enema]. Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine 1987;7(1):21-3, 4. View abstract.
  • Borgia M, Sepe N, Borgia R, and et al. Pharmacological activity of a herbs extract: a controlled clinical study. Curr Ther Res, Clin Exp 1981;29(3):525-536.
  • Cai, J., Xuan, Z. R., Wei, Y. P., Yang, H. B., and Wang, H. [Effects of perioperative administration of Rhubarb on acute inflammatory response in patients with gastric cancer]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Xue.Bao. 2005;3(3):195-198. View abstract.
  • Chen Q, Han G, Zhuang X, and et al. Clinical observation on 157 subjects of gonorrhea treated with rhubarb preparation. Journal of China Pharmaceutical University 1991;22(5):292-294.
  • Chen, X. and Ran, R. [Rhubarb decoction prevents intestinal bacterial translocation during necrotic pancreatitis]. Hua Xi.Yi.Ke.Da.Xue.Xue.Bao. 1996;27(4):418-421. View abstract.
  • Chung, K. T., Wong, T. Y., Wei, C. I., Huang, Y. W., and Lin, Y. Tannins and human health: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1998;38(6):421-464. View abstract.
  • Deng, Y. Y., Chen, Y. P., Wang, L., Hu, Z., Jin, Y., Shen, L., Zhu, R., and Zhong, Y. [Clinical study on treatment of mid-advanced crescentic nephritis by qingre huoxue recipe]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2004;24(12):1084-1086. View abstract.
  • Fan, J. G. Evaluating the efficacy and safety of Danning Pian in the short-term treatment of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: a multicenter clinical trial. Hepatobiliary.Pancreat.Dis.Int 2004;3(3):375-380. View abstract.
  • Fu, D. C. and Yu, C. Y. [Observation on therapeutic effect of Rhubarb and sanchi powder in treating patients with hemorrhagic fever in nephrotic syndrome complicated with digestive tract bleeding]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 2005;25(8):744-747. View abstract.
  • Goel V, Cheema SK, Agellon LB, and et al. In vitro binding of bile salt to rhubarb stalk powder. Nutrition Research 1998;18(5):893-903.
  • Goel, V., Cheema, S. K., Agellon, L. B., Ooraikul, B., and Basu, T. K. Dietary rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum) stalk fibre stimulates cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene expression and bile acid excretion in cholesterol-fed C57BL/6J mice. Br J Nutr 1999;81(1):65-71. View abstract.
  • Goel, V., Ooraikul, B., and Basu, T. K. Cholesterol lowering effects of rhubarb stalk fiber in hypercholesterolemic men. J Am Coll.Nutr 1997;16(6):600-604. View abstract.
  • Goel, V., Ooraikul, B., and Basu, T. K. Effect of dietary rhubarb stalk fiber on the bioavailability of calcium in rats. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 1996;47(2):159-163. View abstract.
  • Harima, S., Matsuda, H., and Kubo, M. Study of various rhubarbs regarding the cathartic effect and endotoxin- induced disseminated intravascular coagulation. Biol Pharm Bull. 1994;17(11):1522-1525. View abstract.
  • Ho, N. K. Traditional Chinese medicine and treatment of neonatal jaundice. Singapore Med J 1996;37(6):645-651. View abstract.
  • Ho, T. Y., Wu, S. L., Chen, J. C., Li, C. C., and Hsiang, C. Y. Emodin blocks the SARS coronavirus spike protein and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 interaction. Antiviral Res 5-15-2006; View abstract.
  • Iida, K., Hase, K., Shimomura, K., Sudo, S., Kadota, S., and Namba, T. Potent inhibitors of tyrosinase activity and melanin biosynthesis from Rheum officinale. Planta Med 1995;61(5):425-428. View abstract.
  • Ji, S. M., Li, L. S., and Ji, D. X. [Effects of baoshen pill in treating chronic renal failure with long- term hemodialysis]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1993;13(2):71-3, 67. View abstract.
  • Jiao D, Shen X, Gao Y, and et al. Clinical study on rhubarb extract tablet in treating simple obesity. Chin J Integr Tradit West Med 2001;7(1):33-35.
  • Jiao, D. H. [Alcoholic extract tablet of rhubarb in treating acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1988;8(6):344-6, 324-5. View abstract.
  • Jiao, D. H. [Clinical research on the hemostatic effect of rhubarb on peptic ulcer with acute bleeding]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1984;4(10):597-600, 579. View abstract.
  • Jiao, D. H., Ma, Y. H., Chen, S. J., Liu, C. T., Shu, H. N., and Chu, C. M. Resume of 400 cases of acute upper digestive tract bleeding treated by rhubarb alone. Pharmacology 1980;20 Suppl 1:128-130. View abstract.
  • Jin, B. L., Xie, L. H., Chen, D. C., Li, C. L., and Xie, J. T. The electrophysiological effects of alcoholized rhubarb solution in feline heart in vivo. Methods Find.Exp Clin Pharmacol 1993;15(1):23-29. View abstract.
  • Jin, H. M. and Jiao, D. H. [Effect of jiang-zhi jian-fei yao on gastro-intestinal movement and adipose cell of abdominal wall]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1994;14(4):230-1, 198. View abstract.
  • Kang, Z., Bi, Z., Ji, W., Zhao, C., and Xie, Y. Observation of therapeutic effect in 50 cases of chronic renal failure treated with rhubarb and adjuvant drugs. J Tradit.Chin Med 1993;13(4):249-252. View abstract.
  • Lee, H. Z. Effects and mechanisms of emodin on cell death in human lung squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Pharmacol 2001;134(1):11-20. View abstract.
  • Li, C., Zhou, J., Gui, P., and He, X. Protective effect of rhubarb on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. J Tradit.Chin Med 2001;21(1):54-58. View abstract.
  • Li, L. Rheum officinale: a new lead in preventing progression of chronic renal failure. Chin Med J (Engl.) 1996;109(1):35-37. View abstract.
  • Li, L. S. and Liu, Z. H. [Clinical and experimental studies of rheum on preventing progression of chronic renal failure] (Chinese). Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.[Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine] 1991;11(7):392-6, 387. View abstract.
  • Li, T. [Rhubarb in the treatment of viral hepatitis and its mechanism of action]. Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi.(Chinese Journal of Modern Developments in Traditional Medicine) 1985;5(6):382-384. View abstract.
  • Zhou, L., Hao, R., and Jiang, L. [Clinical study on retarding aging effect of tongbu recipe to traditional Chinese medicine]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1999;19(4):218-220. View abstract.
  • Zhou, Y, Huang, Z, Huang, T, and et al. Clinical study of Shengxue Mixture in treating aplastic anemia. Chinese Journal of Integrated Traditional and Western Medicine 2001;7(3):186-189.
  • Zhou, Z. [Application and mechanism of radix et rhizoma rhei in treating diseases of the digestive system]. Journal of Chinese Materia Medica 1989;14(8):501-3, 512. View abstract.
  • Zhu, W., Wang, X. M., Zhang, L., Li, X. Y., and Wang, B. X. Pharmacokinetic of rhein in healthy male volunteers following oral and retention enema administration of rhubarb extract: a single dose study. Am J Chin Med 2005;33(6):839-850. View abstract.
  • Zhu, Y. Z., Kang, B., and Zhu, Q. Q. [Clinical study of shuizhi-dahuang mixture in treating schizophrenics with blood stasis syndrome]. Zhongguo Zhong.Xi.Yi.Jie.He.Za Zhi. 1996;16(11):646-648. View abstract.
  • Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publ, 1997.
  • Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
  • Fairbairn JW. The anthraquinone laxatives. Biological assay and its relation to chemical structure. Pharmacology 1976;14:48-61. View abstract.
  • Farnsworth N, Bingel A, Cordell G, et al. Potential value of plants as sources of new antifertility agents I. J Pharm Sci 1975;64:535-98. View abstract.
  • Greenway FL, Liu Z, Martin CK, et al. Safety and efficacy of NT, an herbal supplement, in treating human obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2006;30:1737-41. View abstract.
  • Jiao DH, Ma YH, Chen SJ, et al. Resume of 400 cases of acute upper digestive tract bleeding treated by rhubarb alone. Pharmacology 1980;20 Suppl 1:128-30.
  • Kwan TH, Tong MK, Leung KT, et al. Acute renal failure associated with prolonged intake of slimming pills containing anthraquinones. Hong Kong Med J 2006;12:394-7. View abstract.
  • Nusko G, Schneider B, Schneider I, et al. Anthranoid laxative use is not a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia: results of a prospective case control study. Gut 2000;46:651-5. View abstract.
  • Saller R, Buechi S, Meyrat R, Schmidhauser C. Combined herbal preparation for topical treatment of Herpes labialis. Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd 2001;8:373-82. View abstract.

More Resources for RHUBARB

CONDITIONS OF USE AND IMPORTANT INFORMATION: This information is meant to supplement, not replace advice from your doctor or healthcare provider and is not meant to cover all possible uses, precautions, interactions or adverse effects. This information may not fit your specific health circumstances. Never delay or disregard seeking professional medical advice from your doctor or other qualified health care provider because of something you have read on WebMD. You should always speak with your doctor or health care professional before you start, stop, or change any prescribed part of your health care plan or treatment and to determine what course of therapy is right for you.

This copyrighted material is provided by Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Consumer Version. Information from this source is evidence-based and objective, and without commercial influence. For professional medical information on natural medicines, see Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database Professional Version.
© Therapeutic Research Faculty 2018.