Arbre à Encens, Arbre à Oliban Indien, Boswella, Boswellia, Boswellia serrata, Boswellie, Boswellin, Boswellin Serrata Resin, Encens Indien, Franquincienso, Gajabhakshya, Indian Olibanum, Oliban Indien, Resina Boswelliae, Ru Xiang, Salai Guggal, Salai Guggul, Sallaki Guggul, Shallaki.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationBoswellia is a tree that is native to India, Africa, and Arabia. It is commonly used in the traditional Indian medicine, Ayurveda.
Olibanum is another word for boswellia. It refers to a resin or "sap" that seeps from openings in the bark of several Boswellia species, including Boswellia serrata, Boswellia carterii, and Boswellia frereana. Of these, Boswellia serrata is most commonly used for medicine.
Boswellia is most commonly used for osteoarthritis.
In manufacturing, boswellia resin oil and extracts are used in soaps, cosmetics, foods, and beverages.
How does it work?The resin of Indian frankincense contains substances that may decrease inflammation.
Uses & Effectiveness
Possibly Effective for
- Osteoarthritis. Some research shows that taking certain extracts of boswellia can reduce pain by up to 65% and improve mobility in people with osteoarthritis in joints. Other research shows that taking combination products containing boswellia and other herbal ingredients can also reduce pain and improve function in people with osteoarthritis.
- Skin damage caused by radiation therapy (radiation dermatitis). Some research shows that applying a skin cream containing 2% boswellia during radiation treatment helps prevent severe skin redness from developing.
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Taking boswellia seems to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis in some people. For some people, boswellia seems to work as well as the prescription drug sulfasalazine. Some research shows that it can induce disease remission in 70% to 82% of people.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Aging skin. Early research shows that applying boswellia cream to the face reduces fine surface lines, roughness, and sun damage in women with sun-damaged skin. But skin coloring and wrinkling are not improved.
- Asthma. Early research shows that taking boswellia extract might help improve breathing, reduce sudden attacks, and decrease some symptoms in people with asthma.
- Brain tumor. Early research shows that taking boswellia extract might reduce brain swelling in adults with brain tumors. But it doesn't seem to reduce the need for steroid drugs, which are also used to reduce this swelling. It's unclear if boswellia helps reduce brain swelling in children with brain tumors.
- Cluster headache. Limited evidence suggests that boswellia might reduce the frequency and intensity of cluster headaches.
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn disease). Some early research shows that taking boswellia extract reduces symptoms of Crohn disease. But other research that is more reliable shows no benefit.
- Diabetes. Research suggests that taking boswellia daily after a meal improves levels of blood sugar and cholesterol in people with type 2 diabetes.
- A long-term disorder of the large intestines that causes stomach pain (irritable bowel syndrome or IBS). Early research shows that taking boswellia extract seems to improve symptoms of IBS and decrease the need for extra medications and visits to a doctor or hospital.
- A rare type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon (microscopic colitis). Early research shows that taking boswellia daily for 6 weeks increases remission rate in people with a type of microscopic colitis called collagenous colitis.
- Injury to the brain, spine, or nerves (neurological trauma). Early research suggests that taking boswellia for 6 weeks does not help patients following a brain injury.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Research results are mixed so far about the effectiveness of boswellia in the treatment of RA.
- Hay fever.
- Joint pain.
- Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea).
- Painful conditions caused by overuse of tendons (tendinopathy).
- Sore throat (pharyngitis).
- Stomach pain.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Boswellia is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when taken by mouth as a medicine. Boswellia extract has been safely used in doses up to 1000 mg daily for up to 6 months. A specific boswellia extract called "H15" has also been safely used in doses up to 1200 mg three times daily for up to 8 weeks. Boswellia usually doesn't cause important side effects. However, some people who took it reported stomach pain, nausea, diarrhea, heartburn, itching, headache, swelling, and general weakness.
When applied to the skin: Boswellia is POSSIBLY SAFE when applied to the skin for up to five weeks. When applied to the skin, it can cause allergic rash in some people.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Boswellia is LIKELY SAFE when used in amounts commonly found in foods. But there isn't enough reliable information to know if boswellia is safe to use in the larger amounts needed for medicinal effects while pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid use.
"Auto-immune diseases" such as multiple sclerosis (MS), lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), or other immune system conditions: Boswellia might make the immune system more active. This could worsen the symptoms of auto-immune diseases. Avoid using boswellia if you have any of these conditions.
We currently have no information for INDIAN FRANKINCENSE Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For osteoarthritis: 100-1000 mg of boswellia extracts (5-Loxin, Boswellin, Wokvel, or ApresFLEX, formerly known as Aflapin) or 300-600 mg of boswellia extract in combination with other herbs has been used daily.
- For a type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis): 350 mg three times daily for 6 weeks.
- For skin damage caused by radiation therapy (radiation dermatitis): A cream containing 2% boswellia (Bosexil by Indena SpA) has been applied twice daily during radiation therapy.
- Kimmatkar N, Thawani V, Hingorani L, et al. Efficacy and tolerability of Boswellia serrata extract in treatment of osteoarthritis of knee--a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial. Phytomedicine 2003;10:3-7. View abstract.
- Kirste S, Treier M, Wehrle SJ, et al. Boswellia serratea extract acts on cerebral edema in patients irradiated for brain tumors: a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind pilot trial. Cancer 2011;117:3788-95. View abstract.
- Kizhakkedath R. Clinical evaluation of a formulation containing Curcuma longa and Boswellia serrata extracts in the management of knee osteoarthritis. Mol Med Rep 2013;8(5):1542-8. View abstract.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Indian J Pharm 1992;24:98-101.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharmacol 1991;33:91-5. View abstract.
- Lalithakumari K, Krishnaraju AV, Sengupta K, et al. Safety and toxicological evaluation of a novel, standardized 3-O-acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA)-enriched Boswellia serrata extract (5-Loxin). Toxicol Mech Methods 2006;16:199-226. View abstract.
- Lampl C, Haider B, Schweiger C. Long-term efficacy of Boswellia serrata in four patients with chronic cluster headache. Cephalalgia 2012;32:719-22. View abstract.
- Liu JJ, Nilsson A, Oredsson S, et al. Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells. Carcinogenesis 2002;23:2087-93. View abstract.
- Madisch A, Miehlke S, Eichele O, et al. Boswellia serrata extract for the treatment of collagenous colitis. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Int J Colorectal Dis 2007;22:1445-51. View abstract.
- Majeed M, Majeed S, Narayanan NK, Nagabhushanam K. A pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a novel Boswellia serrata extract in the management of osteoarthritis of the knee. Phytother Res 2019;33(5):1457-68. View abstract.
- Mikhaeil BR, Maatoog GT, Badria FA, Amer MM. Chemistry and immunomodulatory activity of frankincense oil. Z Naturforsch C 2003;58:230-8. View abstract.
- Nieman DC, Shanely RA, Luo B, Dew D, Meaney MP, Sha W. A commercialized dietary supplement alleviates joint pain in community adults: a double-blind, placebo-controlled community trial. Nutr J 2013;12(1):154. View abstract.
- Notarnicola A, Maccagnano G, Moretti L, et al. Methylsulfonylmethane and boswellic acids versus glucosamine sulfate in the treatment of knee arthritis: randomized trial. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2016 Mar;29(1):140-6. View abstract.
- Pedretti A, Capezzera, Zane C, et al. Effects of topical boswellic acid on photo and age-damaged skin: clinical, biophysical, and echographic evaluations in a double-blind, randomized, split-face study. Planta Med 2010;76:555-60. View abstract.
- Pungle P, Banavalikar M, Suthar A, et al. Immunomodulatory activity of boswellic acids of Boswellia serrata Roxb. Indian J Exp Biol 2003;41:1460-2. View abstract.
- Riva A, Giacomelli L, Togni S, et al. Oral administration of a lecithin-based delivery form of boswellic acids (Casperome?) for the prevention of symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized clinical study. Minerva Gastroenterol Dietol 2019;65(1):30-5. View abstract.
- Sander O, Herborn G, Rau R. [Is H15 (resin extract of Boswellia serrata, "incense") a useful supplement to established drug therapy of chronic polyarthritis? Results of a double-blind pilot study]. Z Rheumatol 1998;57:11-6. View abstract.
- Sengupta K, Alluri KV, Satish AR, et al. A double blind, randomized, placebo controlled study of the efficacy and safety of 5-Loxin. Arthritis Res Ther 2008;10:R85. View abstract.
- Sengupta K, Krishnaraju AV, Vishal AA, et al. Comparative efficacy and tolerability of 5-Loxin and Aflapin against osteoarthritis of the knee: a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study. Int J Med Sci 2010;7:366-77. View abstract.
- Sharma S, Thawani V, Hingorani L, et al. Pharmacokinetic study of 11-Keto beta-Boswellic acid. Phytomedicine 2004;11:255-60. View abstract.
- Sontakke S, Thawani V, Pimpalkhute S, et al. Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2007;39:27-9.
- Streffer JR, Bitzer M, Schabet M, et al. Response of radiochemotherapy-associated cerebral edema to a phytotherapteutic agent, H15. Neurology 2001;56:1219-21. View abstract.
- Togni S, Maramaldi G, Bonetta A, Giacomelli L, Di Pierro F. Clinical evaluation of safety and efficacy of Boswellia-based cream for prevention of adjuvant radiotherapy skin damage in mammary carcinoma: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015 Apr;19(8):1338-44. View abstract.
- Vishal AA, Mishra A, Raychaudhuri SP. A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical study evaluates the early efficacy of aflapin in subjects with osteoarthritis of knee. Int J Med Sci 2011;8:615-22. View abstract.
- Wildfeuer A, Neu IS, Safayhi H, et al. Effects of boswellic acids extracted from a herbal medicine on the biosynthesis of leukotrienes and the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Arzneimittelforschung 1998;48:668-74. View abstract.
- Etzel R. Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H 15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Phytomedicine 1996;3:91-4..
- Frank A, Unger M. Analysis of frankincense from various Boswellia species with inhibitory activity on human drug metabolising cytochrome P450 enzymes using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry after automated on-line extraction. J Chromatogr A 2006;1112:255-62. View abstract.
- Gerhardt H, Seifert F, Buvari P, et al. [Therapy of active Crohn disease with Boswellia serrata extract H 15]. Z Gastroenterol 2001;39:11-17. View abstract.
- Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study. Eur J Med Res 1998;3:511-4. View abstract.
- Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with ulcerative colitis. Eur J Med Res 1997;2:37-43. View abstract.
- Gupta I, Parihar A, Malhotra P, et al. Effects of gum resin of Boswellia serrata in patients with chronic colitis. Planta Med 2001;67:391-5. View abstract.
- Holtmeier W, Zeusem S, Preib J, et al. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of Bosewellia serrata in maintaining remission of Crohn's disease: good safety profile but lack of efficacy. Inflamm Bowel Dis 2011;17:573-82. View abstract.
- Janssen G, Bode U, Breu H, et al. Boswellic acids in the palliative therapy of children with progressive or relapsed brain tumors. Klin Padiatr 2000;212:189-95. View abstract.
- Kiela PR, Midura AJ, Kuscuoglu N, et al. Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2005;288:G798-808. View abstract.
- Ernst E. Frankincense: systematic review. BMJ 2008;337:a2813. View abstract.
- Electronic Code of Federal Regulations. Title 21. Part 182 -- Substances Generally Recognized As Safe. Available at: https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=182
- Acebo E, Raton JA, Sautua S, et al. Allergic contact dermatitis from Boswellia serrata extract in a naturopathic cream. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51:91-2.
- Altmann A, Poeckel D, Fischer L, et al. Coupling of boswellic acid-incuded Ca2+ mobilisation and MAPK activation to lipid metabolism and peroxide formation in human leucocytes. Br J Pharmacol 2004;141:223-32. View abstract.
- Ammon HP, Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J. Mechanism of antiinflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;38:1139. View abstract.
- Azadmehr A, Ziaee A, Ghanei L, Fallah Huseini H, Hajiaghaee R, Tavakoli-Far B, Kordafshari G. A Randomized Clinical Trial Study: Anti-Oxidant, Anti-hyperglycemic and Anti-Hyperlipidemic Effects of Olibanum Gum in Type 2 Diabetic Patients. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014 Summer;13(3):1003-9. View abstract.
- Boswellia serrata. Monograph. Alt Med Rev 2008;13:165-7. View abstract.
- Calzavara-Pinton P, Zane C, Facchinetti E, et al. Topical Boswellic acids for treatment of photoaged skin. Dermatol Ther 2010;23:S28-32. View abstract.
- Chopra A, Lavin P, Patwardhan B, Chitre D. Randomized double blind trial of an an aayurvedic plant derived formulation for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000;27:1365-72. View abstract.
- Chopra A, Saluja M, Tillu G, Sarmukkaddam S, Venugopalan A, Narsimulu G, Handa R, Sumantran V, Raut A, Bichile L, Joshi K, Patwardhan B. Ayurvedic medicine offers a good alternative to glucosamine and celecoxib in the treatment of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, controlled equivalence drug trial. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2013;52(8):1408-17. View abstract.
- Culioli G, Mathe C, Archier P, Vieillescazes C. A lupane triterpene from frankincense (Boswellia sp., Burseraceae). Phytochemistry 2003;62:537-41. View abstract.
- Dahmen U, Gu YL, Dirsch O, et al. Boswellic acid, a potent antiinflammatory drug, inhibits rejection to the same extent as high dose steroids. Transplant Proc 2001;33:539-41.
- De Silva V, El-Metwally A, Ernst E, et al. Evidence for the efficacy of complementary and alternative medicines in the management of osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2011;50(5):911-920. View abstract.
- Safayhi, H., Sailer, E. R., and Ammon, H. P. Mechanism of 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid. Mol.Pharmacol. 1995;47(6):1212-1216. View abstract.
- Sailer, E. R., Subramanian, L. R., Rall, B., Hoernlein, R. F., Ammon, H. P., and Safayhi, H. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA): structure requirements for binding and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activity. Br.J Pharmacol. 1996;117(4):615-618. View abstract.
- Schweizer, S., von Brocke, A. F., Boden, S. E., Bayer, E., Ammon, H. P., and Safayhi, H. Workup-dependent formation of 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory boswellic acid analogues. J Nat.Prod. 2000;63(8):1058-1061. View abstract.
- Sharma, M. L., Bani, S., and Singh, G. B. Anti-arthritic activity of boswellic acids in bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced arthritis. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1989;11(6):647-652. View abstract.
- Singh GB, Bani S, and Singh S. Toxicity and safety evaluation of boswellic acids. Phytomed 1996;3(1):87-90.
- Singh GB, Singh S, and Bani S. Anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acids. Phytomed 1996;3(1):81-85.
- Singh, G. B. and Atal, C. K. Pharmacology of an extract of salai guggal ex-Boswellia serrata, a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent. Agents Actions 1986;18(3-4):407-412. View abstract.
- Sontakke, S., Thawani, V., Pimpalkhute, S., Kabra, P., Babhulkar, S., and Hingorani, L. Open, randomized, controlled clinical trial of Boswellia serrata extract as compared to valdecoxib in osteoarthritis of knee. Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2007;39(1):27-29.
- Sterk, V., Buchele, B., and Simmet, T. Effect of food intake on the bioavailability of boswellic acids from a herbal preparation in healthy volunteers. Planta Med 2004;70(12):1155-1160. View abstract.
- Takada, Y., Ichikawa, H., Badmaev, V., and Aggarwal, B. B. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid potentiates apoptosis, inhibits invasion, and abolishes osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-kappa B and NF-kappa B-regulated gene expression. J Immunol 3-1-2006;176(5):3127-3140. View abstract.
- Weber, C. C., Reising, K., Muller, W. E., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Abdel-Tawab, M. Modulation of Pgp function by boswellic acids. Planta Med 2006;72(6):507-513. View abstract.
- Xia, L., Chen, D., Han, R., Fang, Q., Waxman, S., and Jing, Y. Boswellic acid acetate induces apoptosis through caspase-mediated pathways in myeloid leukemia cells. Mol.Cancer Ther 2005;4(3):381-388. View abstract.
- Xu, R. S., Zong, X. H., and Li, X. G. [Controlled clinical trials of therapeutic effects of Chinese herbs promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on the treatment of reflex sympathetic dystrophy with type of stagnation of vital energy and blood stasis]. Zhongguo Gu.Shang 2009;22(12):920-922. View abstract.
- Zhao, W., Entschladen, F., Liu, H., Niggemann, B., Fang, Q., Zaenker, K. S., and Han, R. Boswellic acid acetate induces differentiation and apoptosis in highly metastatic melanoma and fibrosarcoma cells. Cancer Detect.Prev. 2003;27(1):67-75. View abstract.
- 91379 Moein P, Abbasi Fard S, Asnaashari A, Baratian H, Barekatain M, Tavakoli N, Moein H. The effect of Boswellia Serrata on neurorecovery following diffuse axonal injury. Brain Inj. 2013;27(12):1454-60. View abstract.
- Poeckel, D. and Werz, O. Boswellic acids: biological actions and molecular targets. Curr Med Chem 2006;13(28):3359-3369. View abstract.
- Reddy, G. K., Chandrakasan, G., and Dhar, S. C. Studies on the metabolism of glycosaminoglycans under the influence of new herbal anti-inflammatory agents. Biochem Pharmacol 10-15-1989;38(20):3527-3534. View abstract.
- Roy, S., Khanna, S., Krishnaraju, A. V., Subbaraju, G. V., Yasmin, T., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Regulation of vascular responses to inflammation: inducible matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in human microvascular endothelial cells is sensitive to antiinflammatory Boswellia. Antioxid.Redox Signal. 2006;8(3-4):653-660. View abstract.
- Roy, S., Khanna, S., Shah, H., Rink, C., Phillips, C., Preuss, H., Subbaraju, G. V., Trimurtulu, G., Krishnaraju, A. V., Bagchi, M., Bagchi, D., and Sen, C. K. Human genome screen to identify the genetic basis of the anti-inflammatory effects of Boswellia in microvascular endothelial cells. DNA Cell Biol 2005;24(4):244-255. View abstract.
- Safayhi H, Mack T, Sabieraj J, and et al. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharm Exper Ther 1992;261(3):1143-1146.
- Safayhi H, Sailer ER, and Amnon HP. 5-lipoxygenase inhibition by acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) by a novel mechanism. Phytomed 1996;3(1):71-72.
- Safayhi, H., Mack, T., Sabieraj, J., Anazodo, M. I., Subramanian, L. R., and Ammon, H. P. Boswellic acids: novel, specific, nonredox inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase. J Pharmacol.Exp.Ther 1992;261(3):1143-1146. View abstract.
- Acebo, E., Raton, J. A., Sautua, S., Eizaguirre, X., Trebol, I., and Perez, J. L. Allergic contact dermatitis from Boswellia serrata extract in a naturopathic cream. Contact Dermatitis 2004;51(2):91-92. View abstract.
- Akihisa, T., Tabata, K., Banno, N., Tokuda, H., Nishimura, R., Nakamura, Y., Kimura, Y., Yasukawa, K., and Suzuki, T. Cancer chemopreventive effects and cytotoxic activities of the triterpene acids from the resin of Boswellia carteri. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006;29(9):1976-1979. View abstract.
- Ammon, H. P. [Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases]. Wien.Med Wochenschr. 2002;152(15-16):373-378. View abstract.
- Ammon, H. P. Boswellic acids in chronic inflammatory diseases. Planta Med 2006;72(12):1100-1116. View abstract.
- Ammon, H. P. Salai Guggal - Boswellia serrata: from a herbal medicine to a non-redox inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis. Eur J Med Res. 5-24-1996;1(8):369-370. View abstract.
- Ammon, H. P., Mack, T., Singh, G. B., and Safayhi, H. Inhibition of leukotriene B4 formation in rat peritoneal neutrophils by an ethanolic extract of the gum resin exudate of Boswellia serrata. Planta Med 1991;57(3):203-207. View abstract.
- Badria FA, Mohammed EA El-Badrawy MK El-Desouky M. Natural leukotriene inhibitor from Boswellia: A potential new alternative for treating bronchial asthma. Alternative & Complementary Therapies 2004;10(5):257-265.
- Böker D and Winking M. Die rolle von Boswellia-Säuren in der therapie maligner gliome. Dt Ärztebl 1997;94:1197.
- Buchele, B. and Simmet, T. Analysis of 12 different pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci. 10-5-2003;795(2):355-362. View abstract.
- Buchele, B., Zugmaier, W., and Simmet, T. Analysis of pentacyclic triterpenic acids from frankincense gum resins and related phytopharmaceuticals by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of lupeolic acid, a novel pentacyclic triterpene. J Chromatogr.B Analyt.Technol.Biomed.Life Sci. 7-5-2003;791(1-2):21-30. View abstract.
- Buchele, B., Zugmaier, W., Estrada, A., Genze, F., Syrovets, T., Paetz, C., Schneider, B., and Simmet, T. Characterization of 3alpha-acetyl-11-keto-alpha-boswellic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Planta Med 2006;72(14):1285-1289. View abstract.
- Chande, N., MacDonald, J. K., and McDonald, J. W. Interventions for treating microscopic colitis: a Cochrane Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Functional Bowel Disorders Review Group systematic review of randomized trials. Am J Gastroenterol 2009;104(1):235-241. View abstract.
- Chande, N., McDonald, J. W., and MacDonald, J. K. Interventions for treating collagenous colitis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev 2006;(4):CD003575. View abstract.
- Chande, N., McDonald, J. W., and Macdonald, J. K. Interventions for treating collagenous colitis. Cochrane.Database.Syst.Rev. 2008;(2):CD003575. View abstract.
- Clark, C. E., Arnold, E., Lasserson, T. J., and Wu, T. Herbal interventions for chronic asthma in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prim.Care Respir.J 2010;19(4):307-314. View abstract.
- El Fortia, M., Badi, H., Elalem, Kh, Kadiki, O., and Topov, Y. Olibanum bezoar: complication of a traditional popular medicine. East Mediterr.Health J 2006;12(6):927-929. View abstract.
- Etzel R. Special extract of Boswellia serrata (H15) in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Phytomed 1996;3(1):91-94.
- Flavin, D. F. A lipoxygenase inhibitor in breast cancer brain metastases. J Neurooncol. 2007;82(1):91-93. View abstract.
- Galeone, G., Spadavecchia, R., Balducci, M. T., and Pagliarulo, V. [The role of Proxelan in the treatment of chronic prostatitis. Results of a randomized trial]. Minerva Urol.Nefrol. 2012;64(2):135-141. View abstract.
- Gerbeth, K., Meins, J., Kirste, S., Momm, F., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Abdel-Tawab, M. Determination of major boswellic acids in plasma by high-pressure liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. J Pharm.Biomed.Anal. 12-15-2011;56(5):998-1005. View abstract.
- Hostanska, K., Daum, G., and Saller, R. Cytostatic and apoptosis-inducing activity of boswellic acids toward malignant cell lines in vitro. Anticancer Res. 2002;22(5):2853-2862. View abstract.
- Joos, S., Rosemann, T., Szecsenyi, J., Hahn, E. G., Willich, S. N., and Brinkhaus, B. Use of complementary and alternative medicine in Germany - a survey of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. BMC.Complement Altern Med 2006;6:19. View abstract.
- Kesava, Reddy G. and Dhar, S. C. Effect of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent on lysosomal stability in adjuvant induced arthritis. Ital J Biochem 1987;36(4):205-217. View abstract.
- Kesava, Reddy G., Dhar, S. C., and Singh, G. B. Urinary excretion of connective tissue metabolites under the influence of a new non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent in adjuvant induced arthritis. Agents Actions 1987;22(1-2):99-105. View abstract.
- Knaus U and Wagner H. Effects of Boswellic acid of Boswellia serrata and other triterpenic acids on the Complement System. Phytomedicine 1996;3(1):77-80.
- Kruger, P., Daneshfar, R., Eckert, G. P., Klein, J., Volmer, D. A., Bahr, U., Muller, W. E., Karas, M., Schubert-Zsilavecz, M., and Abdel-Tawab, M. Metabolism of boswellic acids in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36(6):1135-1142. View abstract.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, and et al. Efficacy of an Ayurvedic formulation in rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. Indian J Pharm 1992;24:98-101.
- Kulkarni RR, Patki PS, Jog VP, and et al. Treatment of osteoarthritis with a herbomineral formulation: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study. J Ethnopharm 1991;33(1-2):91-95.
- Liu, X. and Qi, Z. H. [Experimental study on Jurkat cell apoptosis induced by Boswellia carterii Birdw extractive]. Hunan.Yi.Ke.Da Xue.Xue.Bao. 6-28-2000;25(3):241-244. View abstract.
- Park, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Bondar, J., Harwalkar, J. A., Safayhi, H., and Golubic, M. Cytotoxic action of acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) on meningioma cells. Planta Med 2002;68(5):397-401. View abstract.
- Park, Y. S., Lee, J. H., Harwalkar, J. A., Bondar, J., Safayhi, H., and Golubic, M. Acetyl-11-keto-beta-boswellic acid (AKBA) is cytotoxic for meningioma cells and inhibits phosphorylation of the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1 and 2. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;507:387-393. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased INDIAN FRANKINCENSE?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)