Alcanfor, Arbre à Camphre, Camphor Tree, Camphora, Camphora Officinarum, Camphre, Camphre de Laurier, Camphre Gomme, Camphrier, Cemphire, Cinnamomum Camphora, dl-Camphor, dl-Camphre, Gum Camphor, Kapur, Karpoora, Karpuram, Laurel Camphor, Laurus camphora.
Overview InformationCamphor used to be made by distilling the bark and wood of the camphor tree. Today, camphor is usually manufactured from turpentine oil. It is used in products such as Vicks VapoRub.
Camphor products can be rubbed on the skin (topical application) or inhaled. Be sure to read the label to find out how the product should be administered.
People sometimes apply camphor to the skin to relieve pain and reduce itching. Some people inhale camphor to reduce the urge to cough. There is some good evidence to support these uses. Camphor has also been applied to the skin to treat toenail fungus, warts, insect bites, cold sores, and hemorrhoids, but there is no good scientific research to support these other uses.
It is important not to apply camphor to broken skin, because it can enter the body quickly and reach concentrations that are high enough to cause poisoning.
Although it is an UNSAFE practice, some people take camphor by mouth to help them cough up phlegm, treat infections of the airway, treat intestinal gas (flatulence), and decrease body weight. Experts warn against doing this because, when ingested, camphor can cause serious side effects, even death.
Camphor is a well-established folk remedy, and is commonly used. Camphorated oil (20% camphor in cottonseed oil) was removed from the U.S. market in the 1980s because of safety concerns associated with accidental intake by mouth. It continues to be available without a prescription in Canada.
Camphor is used in manufacturing to make mothballs.
How does it work?Camphor seems to stimulate nerve endings that relieve symptoms such as pain and itching when applied to the skin. Camphor is also active against fungi that cause infections in the toenails.
Uses & Effectiveness
Likely Effective for
- Cough.Camphor is FDA-approved as a chest rub in concentrations less than 11%.
- Pain. Camphor is FDA-approved for use on the skin as a painkiller in concentrations of 3% to 11%. It is in many rub-on products for cold sores, insect stings and bites, minor burns, and hemorrhoids.
- Skin itching or irritation. Camphor is FDA-approved for use on the skin to help itching or irritation in concentrations of 3% to 11%.
Possibly Effective for
- Osteoarthritis. A rub-on cream containing camphor, glucosamine sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate seems to reduce the severity of symptoms of osteoarthritis by about half. Researchers believe it is probably the camphor, not the other ingredients, that relieves the symptoms.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Insect bite. Early research shows that applying camphor along with menthol and eucalyptus oil might help reduce the size of mosquito bites.
- Low blood pressure after standing up. Early research suggests that taking a product containing camphor and hawthorn by mouth helps prevent drops in blood pressure upon standing. However, it is not clear if taking camphor alone provides the same benefits. Also, this product is not available in the US.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyCamphor is LIKELY SAFE for most adults when applied to the skin in a cream or lotion in low concentrations. Camphor can cause some minor side effects such as skin redness and irritation. Do not use undiluted camphor products or products containing more than 11% camphor. These can be irritating and unsafe. Camphor is also LIKELY SAFE for most adults when inhaled as vapor in small amounts as a part of aromatherapy. Don't use more than 1 tablespoon camphor solution per quart of water.
Do not heat camphor-containing products (Vicks VapoRub, BenGay, Heet, many others) in the microwave. The product can explode and cause severe burns.
Camphor-containing products are LIKELY UNSAFE when applied to broken or injured skin. Camphor is easily absorbed through broken skin and can reach toxic levels in the body.
Camphor is UNSAFE when taken by mouth by adults. Ingesting camphor can cause severe side effects, including death. The first symptoms of camphor toxicity occur quickly (within 5 to 90 minutes), and can include burning of the mouth and throat, nausea, and vomiting. Other symptoms affect the nervous system, such as seizures, confusion, and muscular contractions, as well as effects on vision.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: Taking camphor by mouth is UNSAFE during pregnancy or breast-feeding. The safety of applying camphor to the skin during pregnancy or breast-feeding is unknown. Don't risk your health or your baby's health. Avoid using camphor during pregnancy.
Children: Camphor is POSSIBLY UNSAFE in children when applied to the skin. Children tend to be more sensitive to the side effects. Doctors recommend that camphor products are not used on the skin in children. Camphor is UNSAFE in children when taken by mouth. Seizures and death can occur if these products are eaten. To be on the safe side, keep camphor-containing products away from children.
Liver disease: Taking camphor by mouth or applying it to the skin have been linked to potential liver damage. In theory, using camphor might make liver disease worse.
We currently have no information for CAMPHOR Interactions.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
APPLIED TO THE SKIN:
- For pruritis and pain: A 3% to 11% ointment is typically used three to four times daily.
- For cough: A thick layer of 4.7% to 5.3% camphor ointment is applied to the throat and chest. The area may be covered with a warm, dry cloth or left uncovered.
- For osteoarthritis: A topical cream containing camphor (32 mg/g), glucosamine sulfate (30 mg/g), and chondroitin sulfate (50 mg/g) as needed on sore joints for up to 8 weeks.
- One tablespoon of solution per quart of water is placed directly into a hot steam vaporizer, bowl, or washbasin. Sometimes 1.5 teaspoons of solution are added to a pint of water and boiled. The medicated vapors are breathed. This inhalation may be repeated up to three times a day.
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