EPA (EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID)
Acide Eicosapentaénoïque, Acide Éthyle-Eicosapentaénoïque, Acide Gras Essentiel, Acide Gras d’Huile de Poisson, Acide Gras N-3, Acide Gras Omega, Acide Gras Oméga 3, Acide Gras Polyinsaturé, Acide Gras W3, Acido Eicosapentaenoico, EPA, E-EPA, Eicosapentanoic Acid, Essential Fatty Acid, Ethyl Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Ethyl-Eicosapentaenoic Acid, Ethyl-EPA, Fish Oil Fatty Acid, N-3 Fatty Acid, Omega Fatty Acid, Omega 3, Oméga 3, Omega-3, Omega 3 Fatty Acids, Omega-3 Fatty Acids, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, PUFA, W-3 Fatty Acid.<br/><br/>
Overview InformationEicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is an omega-3 fatty acid. It's found in the flesh of cold-water fish, including mackerel, herring, tuna, halibut, salmon, cod liver, whale blubber, or seal blubber.
EPA is used as a prescription medicine to reduce triglyceride levels. As a supplement, EPA is most commonly used for heart disease, preventing adverse events after a heart attack, depression, and menopause. It is also used for chemotherapy-related side effects, recovery after surgery, memory and thinking skills, and many other conditions, but there is no good scientific evidence to support many of these uses.
Don't confuse EPA with similar fatty acids, such as alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), as well as with oils like krill or fish oils, which contain both eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA. Most available data involving eicosapentaenoic acid are from research and clinical experience with fish oil products containing variable combinations of EPA and DHA. See the separate listings for alpha-linolenic acid, DHA, fish oil, and krill oil.
How does it work?EPA can prevent the blood from clotting easily. These fatty acids also reduce pain and swelling.
Uses & Effectiveness
- High levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia). Research shows that taking a prescription drug called Vascepa, which contains pure eicosapentaenoic acid, helps lowers triglycerides levels by 33% in people with very high levels. This prescription product also lowers triglyceride levels by about 22% and cholesterol levels by 6% in most people taking cholesterol-lowering drugs called "statins" who continue to have high triglyceride levels. Taking this prescription drug also reduces the risk of major heart-related adverse events by about 25% in people taking statins with persistent high triglyceride levels and other heart-related risk factors.
Likely Effective for
- High levels of blood fats called triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). Research shows that taking a specific product containing eicosapentaenoic acid as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid (Vascepa by Amarin) by mouth along with dieting and cholesterol-lowering drugs called "statins" reduces levels of triglycerides in people with very high levels. It might also improve cholesterol levels. This product is FDA-approved in adults with very high triglyceride levels.
Possibly Effective for
- A mental disorder marked by unstable mood and behavior (borderline personality disorder). Taking eicosapentaenoic acid seems to slightly lower aggressiveness and slightly relieve depression in women with this mood disorder.
- Heart disease. People with coronary artery disease who consume more eicosapentaenoic acid as part of their diet seem to have a slightly reduced risk of death. Early research shows that taking 1800 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid daily reduces the risk of heart-related adverse events such as heart attacks in people with high cholesterol and coronary artery disease.
- Depression. Research suggests that taking pure eicosapentaenoic acid or fish oil containing at least 60% eicosapentaenoic acid reduces symptoms of depression. It might work best when used along with antidepressant drugs.
- Symptoms of menopause. Research shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid reduces how often hot flashes occur. But eicosapentaenoic acid does not seem to reduce the intensity of the hot flashes or improve overall quality of life.
- Heart attack. After a heart attack, people may undergo a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) to improve blood flow to the heart. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth along with a drug called a "statin" within 24 hours of PCI reduces the risk of heart-related adverse events such as an irregular heart beat (arrhythmia) or death after the procedure compared to taking the "statin" alone. Also, taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth along with "statins" before undergoing PCI for chest pain reduces the risk of having a heart attack after the procedure.
Possibly Ineffective for
- An eye disease that leads to vision loss in older adults (age-related macular degeneration or AMD). Eating more eicosapentaenoic acid as part of the diet does not seem to prevent AMD.
- Hay fever. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to relieve hay fever symptoms such as wheezing, cough, and nasal symptoms.
- Asthma. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce asthma symptoms.
- Cystic fibrosis. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem so to improve symptoms of cystic fibrosis.
- Diabetes. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce blood sugar or cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
- High blood pressure. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth with another fatty acid, gamma-linolenic acid, does not seem to reduce blood pressure in people with high blood pressure.
- Infants with birth weight below the 10th percentile due to inadequate nutrition. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce the risk of an infant having delayed growth while still in the uterus.
- High blood pressure during pregnancy. Taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth does not seem to reduce high blood pressure in women with high-risk pregnancies.
Insufficient Evidence for
- Alzheimer disease. Early research suggests that increased intake of eicosapentaenoic acid in the diet doesn't help prevent Alzheimer disease.
- Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Some research shows that low blood levels of eicosapentaenoic acid and other fatty acids are linked with ADHD in children. However, it's not known yet if taking eicosapentaenoic acid supplements can treat or prevent ADHD.
- Involuntary weight loss in people who are very ill (cachexia or wasting syndrome). Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid (ProSure by Abbott Nutrition) by mouth while undergoing chemotherapy to treat lung cancer helps prevent the loss of lean body mass better than a nutritional supplement without eicosapentaenoic acid. However, taking eicosapentaenoic acid along with a special diet doesn't seem to prevent the loss of lean body mass any more than the special diet alone in people with head and neck cancer when started before treatment.
- Diarrhea caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid doesn't seem to prevent diarrhea caused by cancer drug treatment for lung cancer.
- Nausea and vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid doesn't seem to prevent nausea or vomiting caused by cancer drug treatment for lung cancer.
- Nerve damage in the hands and feet caused by cancer drug treatment. Taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid during cancer drug treatment for lung cancer prevents nerve pain by a small amount.
- Tiredness in people treated with cancer drugs. Taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid during cancer drug treatment for lung cancer prevents tiredness by a small amount.
- Lung cancer. Early research shows that taking a nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid (ProSure by Abbott Nutrition) by mouth while undergoing cancer drug treatment for lung cancer doesn't improve response rate or increase survival compared to taking a nutritional supplement without eicosapentaenoic acid.
- Infection after surgery. Early research shows that giving eicosapentaenoic acid, RNA, and L-arginine as part of "tube feeding" after surgery reduces the potential for infections and improves recovery time compared to standard "tube feeding."
- Recovery after surgery. Weight loss and malnutrition are common after surgery to the esophagus. Early research shows that giving eicosapentaenoic acid as part of "tube feeds" after surgery to the esophagus doesn't prevent weight loss or loss of lean body mass compared to "tube feeds" without eicosapentaenoic acid.
- Prostate cancer. It is not known if levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in the blood affect the risk of getting prostate cancer. Some research shows that a higher blood level of eicosapentaenoic acid is linked with a lower risk of getting prostate cancer. But other research shows there's no link. In men with normal levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA), which may be elevated in prostate cancer, early research shows that eicosapentaenoic acid may reduce PSA levels.
- Scaly, itchy skin (psoriasis). Early research shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid by mouth or giving eicosapentaenoic acid intravenously (by IV) along with a drug called etretinate improves psoriasis symptoms better than etretinate alone.
- Schizophrenia. Research to date shows conflicting results about the effectiveness of eicosapentaenoic acid in treating schizophrenia.
- A type of inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis). Some research shows that a higher intake of eicosapentaenoic acid and other fatty acids in the diet is associated with a reduced risk of having ulcerative colitis. Early research also shows that taking eicosapentaenoic acid for 6 months might reduce markers of bowel inflammation and the risk of worsening ulcerative colitis.
- Lung diseases.
- Menstrual disorders.
- Other conditions.
Side Effects & SafetyWhen taken by mouth: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is LIKELY SAFE for most adults. It has been used safely in studies for up to 7 years. Most side effects are mild and may include nausea, diarrhea, discomfort in the upper abdomen, or belching. Taking EPA with meals can often decrease these side effects. But people should limit intake of EPA and other omega-3 fatty acids to 3 grams per day, with no more than 2 grams per day from a dietary supplement unless approved by a healthcare provider. Doses of EPA and other omega-3 fatty acids greater than 3 grams per day is POSSIBLY UNSAFE. Taking more than 3 grams per day of omega-3 fatty acids might slow blood clotting and may increase the chance of bleeding.
When given by IV: Eicosapentaenoic acid is POSSIBLY SAFE for most people when given by IV with the approval of a healthcare provider. It is usually well tolerated.
Special Precautions & Warnings:Pregnancy and breast-feeding: There isn't enough reliable information to know if eicosapentaenoic acid is safe to use when pregnant or breast-feeding. Stay on the safe side and avoid using more than food amounts.
Aspirin-sensitivity: If you are sensitive to aspirin, eicosapentaenoic acid might affect your breathing.
High blood pressure: Eicosapentaenoic acid might lower blood pressure. In people who are already taking medications to lower their blood pressure, adding eicosapentaenoic acid might make blood pressure drop too low. If you have high blood pressure, discuss using eicosapentaenoic acid with your healthcare provider, before you start taking it.
Be cautious with this combination
Medications for high blood pressure (Antihypertensive drugs) interacts with EPA (EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID)
EPA can decrease blood pressure. Taking EPA along with medications for high blood pressure might cause you blood pressure to go too low.<br/><br/> Some medications for high blood pressure include captopril (Capoten), enalapril (Vasotec), losartan (Cozaar), valsartan (Diovan), diltiazem (Cardizem), Amlodipine (Norvasc), hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDiuril), furosemide (Lasix), and many others.
Medications that slow blood clotting (Anticoagulant / Antiplatelet drugs) interacts with EPA (EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID)
EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) might slow blood clotting. Taking EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) along with medications that also slow clotting might increase the chances of bruising and bleeding.<br/><br/> Some medications that slow blood clotting include aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), diclofenac (Voltaren, Cataflam, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin, others), naproxen (Anaprox, Naprosyn, others), dalteparin (Fragmin), enoxaparin (Lovenox), heparin, warfarin (Coumadin), and others.
The following doses have been studied in scientific research:
- For high levels of fats called triglycerides in the blood (hypertriglyceridemia): A specific prescription medicine containing pure eicosapentaenoic acid (Vascepa by Amarin) has been taken in doses of 2 grams twice daily along with dieting an possibly treatment with cholesterol-lowering drugs called "statins."
- For heart disease: 0.6 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid three times daily.
- For depression: For treating depression, 0.5-1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) twice daily has been used along with antidepressant medication. In some cases, eicosapentaenoic acid is taken with docosahexaenoic acid. The combination formulas containing at least 60% eicosapentaenoic acid seem to work best. For preventing depression in people receiving interferon-alpha treatment, 3.5 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid per day has been used for 2 weeks.
- For heart attack: 1.8 grams of eicosapentaenoic acid daily in combination with "statins" has been taken for one month or one year following a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Taking 1.8 grams daily in combination with "statins" for one month before PCI has also been used.
- For symptoms of menopause: 500 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) three times daily has been used for up to 8 weeks.
- For a mental disorder marked by unstable mood and behavior (borderline personality disorder): 1 gram of eicosapentaenoic acid (as ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) has been used daily for up to 8 weeks.
- Bahadori, B., Uitz, E., Thonhofer, R., Trummer, M., Pestemer-Lach, I., McCarty, M., and Krejs, G. J. omega-3 Fatty acids infusions as adjuvant therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. JPEN J Parenter.Enteral Nutr 2010;34(2):151-155. View abstract.
- Danno, K. and Sugie, N. Combination therapy with low-dose etretinate and eicosapentaenoic acid for psoriasis vulgaris. J Dermatol. 1998;25(11):703-705. View abstract.
- Katz, D. P., Manner, T., Furst, P., and Askanazi, J. The use of an intravenous fish oil emulsion enriched with omega-3 fatty acids in patients with cystic fibrosis. Nutrition 1996;12(5):334-339. View abstract.
- Kris-Etherton, P. M., Taylor, D. S., Yu-Poth, S., Huth, P., Moriarty, K., Fishell, V., Hargrove, R. L., Zhao, G., and Etherton, T. D. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the United States. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):179S-188S. View abstract.
- Sanders, T. A. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in Europe. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71(1 Suppl):176S-178S. View abstract.
- Simopoulos, A. P. Human requirement for N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult.Sci 2000;79(7):961-970. View abstract.
- Sublette, M. E., Ellis, S. P., Geant, A. L., and Mann, J. J. Meta-analysis of the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in clinical trials in depression. J.Clin.Psychiatry 2011;72(12):1577-1584. View abstract.
- Akedo I, Ishikawa H, Nakamura T, et al. Three cases with familial adenomatous polyposis diagnosed as having malignant lesions in the course of a long-term trial using docosahexanoic acid (DHA)-concentrated fish oil capsules (abstract). Jpn J Clin Oncol 1998;28:762-5. View abstract.
- Ballantyne CM, Bays HE, Kastelein JJ, Stein E, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Efficacy and safety of eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in statin-treated patients with persistent high triglycerides (from the ANCHOR study). Am J Cardiol. 2012 Oct 1;110(7):984-92. View abstract.
- Bays HE, Ballantyne CM, Kastelein JJ, Isaacsohn JL, Braeckman RA, Soni PN. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (AMR101) therapy in patients with very high triglyceride levels (from the Multi-center, plAcebo-controlled, Randomized, double-blINd, 12-week study with an open-label Extension [MARINE] trial). Am J Cardiol. 2011 Sep 1;108(5):682-90. View abstract.
- Bhatt DL, Steg PG, Miller M, et al; REDUCE-IT Investigators. Cardiovascular Risk Reduction with Icosapent Ethyl for Hypertriglyceridemia. N Engl J Med. 2018 Nov 10. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1812792. [Epub ahead of print] View abstract.
- Braeckman RA, Stirtan WG, Soni PN. Pharmacokinetics of Eicosapentaenoic Acid in Plasma and Red Blood Cells After Multiple Oral Dosing With Icosapent Ethyl in Healthy Subjects. Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev. 2014 Mar;3(2):101-108. View abstract.
- Brinton EA, Ballantyne CM, Guyton JR, et al. Lipid effects of icosapent ethyl in women with diabetes mellitus and persistent high triglycerides on statin treatment: ANCHOR Trial Subanalysis. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2018;27(9):1170-1176. View abstract.
- Bulstra-Ramakers MT, Huisjes HJ, Visser GH. The effects of 3g eicosapentaenoic acid daily on recurrence of intrauterine growth retardation and pregnancy induced hypertension. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1995;102:123-6. View abstract.
- Burkhart CS, Dell-Kuster S, Siegemund M, Pargger H, Marsch S, Strebel SP, Steiner LA.Effect of n-3 fatty acids on markers of brain injury and incidence of sepsis-associated delirium in septic patients. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2014;58(6):689-700. View abstract.
- Calder PC. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation and immunity: pouring oil on troubled waters or another fishy tale? Nutr Res 2001;21:309-41.
- Cawood AL, Ding R, Napper FL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from highly concentrated n-3 fatty acid ethyl esters is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability. Atherosclerosis. 2010;212(1):252-9. View abstract.
- Chavarro JE, Stampfer MJ, Li H, et al. A prospective study of polyunsaturated fatty acid levels in blood and prostate cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2007;16:1364-70. View abstract.
- Cho E, Hung S, Willet W, et al. Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:209-18.. View abstract.
- Daly JM, Lieberman MD, Goldfine J, et al. Enteral nutrition with supplemental arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients after operation: immunologic, metabolic and clinical outcome. Surgery 1992;112:56-67. View abstract.
- Doi M, Nosaka K, Miyoshi T, Iwamoto M, Kajiya M, Okawa K, Nakayama R, Takagi W, Takeda K, Hirohata S, Ito H. Early eicosapentaenoic acid treatment after percutaneous coronary intervention reduces acute inflammatory responses and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a randomized, controlled study. Int J Cardiol. 2014 Oct 20;176(3):577-82. View abstract.
- Dokholyan RS, Albert CM, Appel LJ, et al. A trial of omega-3 fatty acids for prevention of hypertension. Am J Cardiol 2004;93:1041-3. View abstract.
- Emsley R, Myburgh C, Oosthuizen P, van Rensburg SJ. Randomized, placebo-controlled study of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid as supplemental treatment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:1596-8. View abstract.
- Erkkila AT, Lehto S, Pyorala K, Uusitupa MI. n-3 Fatty acids and 5-y risks of death and cardiovascular disease events in patients with coronary artery disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2003;78:65-71.. View abstract.
- FDA announces qualified health claims for omega-3 fatty acids. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Food/LabelingNutrition/ucm072756.htm. Accessed April 15 2019.
- FDA. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Letter regarding dietary supplement health claim for omega-3 fatty acids and coronary heart disease. Available at: http://www.fda.gov/ohrms/dockets/dockets/95s0316/95s-0316-Rpt0272-38-Appendix-D-Reference-F-FDA-vol205.pdf. (Accessed February 7, 2017).
- Fenton WS, Dickerson F, Boronow J, et al. A placebo-controlled trial of omega-3 fatty acid (ethyl eicosapentaenoic acid) supplementation for residual symptoms and cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 2001;158:2071-4. View abstract.
- Finnegan YE, Howarth D, Minihane AM, et al. Plant and marine derived (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in moderately hyperlipidemic humans. J Nutr 2003;133:2210-3.. View abstract.
- Fu YQ, Zheng JS, Yang B, Li D. Effect of individual omega-3 fatty acids on the risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. J Epidemiol. 2015;25(4):261-74. View abstract.
- Grosso G, Pajak A, Marventano S, Castellano S, Galvano F, Bucolo C, Drago F, Caraci F. Role of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of depressive disorders: a comprehensive meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. PLoS One. 2014 May 7;9(5):e96905. View abstract.
- Healy LA, Ryan A, Doyle SL, Ní Bhuachalla ÉB, Cushen S, Segurado R, et al. Does prolonged enteral feeding with supplemental omega-3 fatty acids impact on Recovery post-esophagectomy: results of a randomized double-blind trial. Ann Surg. 2017;266(5):720-728. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002390. View abstract.
- Hosogoe N, Ishikawa S, Yokoyama N, Kozuma K, Isshiki T. Add-on Antiplatelet Effects of Eicosapentaenoic Acid With Tailored Dose Setting in Patients on Dual Antiplatelet Therapy. Int Heart J. 2017;58(4):481-485. doi: 10.1536/ihj.16-430. View abstract.
- Joy CB, Mumby-Croft R, Joy LA. Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;3:CD001257. View abstract.
- Kemen M, Senkal M, Homann HH, et al. Early postoperative enteral nutrition with arginine-omega-3 fatty acids and ribonucleic acid-supplemented diet vs placebo in cancer patients: an immunologic evaluation of impact. Crit Care Med 1995;23:652-9. View abstract.
- Kris-Ehterton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ, et al. Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation 2002;106:2747-57. View abstract.
- Kuhnt K, Fuhrmann C, Köhler M, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Dietary echium oil increases long-chain n-3 PUFAs, including docosapentaenoic acid, in blood fractions and alters biochemical markers for cardiovascular disease independently of age, sex, and metabolic syndrome. J Nutr. 2014 Apr;144(4):447-60. View abstract.
- Kuhnt K, Weiß S, Kiehntopf M, Jahreis G. Consumption of echium oil increases EPA and DPA in blood fractions more efficiently compared to linseed oil in humans. Lipids Health Dis. 2016 Feb 18;15:32. View abstract.
- Kurita A, Takashima H, Ando H, Kumagai S, Waseda K, Gosho M, Amano T. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on peri-procedural (type IVa) myocardial infarction following elective coronary stenting. J Cardiol. 2015 Aug;66(2):114-9. View abstract.
- Lucas M, Asselin G, Merette C, et al. Effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoic acid omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on hot flashes and quality of life among middle-aged women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Menopause 2009;16:357-66. View abstract.
- Mayser P, Mrowietz U, Arenberger P, et al. Omega-3 fatty acid-based lipid infusion in patients with chronic plaque psoriasis: results of a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Am Acad Dermatol 1998;38:539-47. View abstract.
- Mischoulon D, Nierenberg AA, Schettler PJ, Kinkead BL, Fehling K, Martinson MA, Hyman Rapaport M. A double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial comparing eicosapentaenoic acid versus docosahexaenoic acid for depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Jan;76(1):54-61. View abstract.
- Mori TA, Burke V, Puddey IB, et al. Purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have differential effects on serum lipids and lipoproteins, LDL particle size, glucose, and insulin in mildly hyperlipidemic men. Am J Clin Nutr 2000;71:1085-94. View abstract.
- Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and n-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol 2003;60:940-6. View abstract.
- Nemets B, Stahl Z, Belmaker RH. Addition of omega-3 fatty acid to maintenance medication treatment for recurrent unipolar depressive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2002;159:477-9.. View abstract.
- Nosaka K, Miyoshi T, Iwamoto M, Kajiya M, Okawa K, Tsukuda S,et al. Early initiation of eicosapentaenoic acid and statin treatment is associated with better clinical outcomes than statin alone in patients with acute coronary syndromes: 1-year outcomes of a randomized controlled study. Int J Cardiol. 2017;228:173-179. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2016.11.105. View abstract.
- Peet M, Horrobin DF. A dose-ranging study of the effects of ethyl-eicosapentaenoate in patients with ongoing depression despite apparently adequate treatment with standard drugs. Arch Gen Psychiatry 2002;59:913-9.. View abstract.
- Phang M, Lincz LF, Garg ML. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid supplementations reduce platelet aggregation and hemostatic markers differentially in men and women. J Nutr. 2013 Apr;143(4):457-63. View abstract.
- Picado C, Castillo JA, Schinca N, et al. Effects of a fish oil enriched diet on aspirin intolerant asthmatic patients: a pilot study. Thorax 1988;43:93-7. View abstract.
- Prisco D, Paniccia R, Bandinelli B, et al. Effect of medium-term supplementation with a moderate dose of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on blood pressure in mild hypertensive patients. Thromb Res 1998;1:105-12. View abstract.
- Sacks FM, Hebert P, Appel LJ, et al. Short report: the effect of fish oil on blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in phase I of the trials of hypertension prevention. J Hypertens 1994;12:209-13. View abstract.
- Safarinejad MR, Shafiei N, Safarinejad S. Effects of EPA, ?-linolenic acid or coenzyme Q10 on serum prostate-specific antigen levels: a randomised, double-blind trial. Br J Nutr. 2013;110(1):164-71. View abstract.
- Sakakibara H, Hirose K, Matsushita K, et al. Effect of supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid ethylster MND-21, on generation of leukotrienes by calcium ionophore-activated leukocytes in bronchial asthma. Nihon Kyobu Shikkan Gakkai Zasshi 1995;33:395-402. View abstract.
- Sánchez-Lara K, Turcott JG, Juárez-Hernández E, Nuñez-Valencia C, Villanueva G, Guevara P, De la Torre-Vallejo M, Mohar A, Arrieta O. Effects of an oral nutritional supplement containing eicosapentaenoic acid on nutritional and clinical outcomes in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer: randomised trial. Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec;33(6):1017-23. View abstract.
- Saynor R, Gillott T. Changes in blood lipids and fibrinogen with a note on safety in a long term study on the effects of n-3 fatty acids in subjects receiving fish oil supplements and followed for seven years. Lipids 1992;27:533-8. View abstract.
- Scaioli E, Sartini A, Bellanova M, Campieri M, Festi D, Bazzoli F, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid reduces fecal levels of calprotectin and prevents relapse in patients with ulcerative colitis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018: S1542-3565(18)30106-X. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2018.01.036. View abstract.
- Senkal M, Kemen M, Homann HH, et al. Modulation of postoperative immune response by enteral nutrition with a diet enriched with arginine, RNA, and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with upper gastrointestinal cancer. Eur J Surg 1995;161:115-22. View abstract.
- Simopoulos AP. Essential fatty acids in health and chronic disease. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;70:560S-9S. View abstract.
- Solís-Martínez O, Plasa-Carvalho V, Phillips-Sixtos G, et al. Effect of eicosapentaenoic acid on body composition and inflammation markers in patients with head and neck squamous cell cancer from a public hospital in Mexico. Nutr Cancer. 2018;70(4):663-670. View abstract.
- Stevens LJ, Zentall SS, Deck JL, et al. Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Clin Nutr 1995;62:761-8. View abstract.
- Su KP, Lai HC, Yang HT, Su WP, Peng CY, Chang JP, Chang HC, Pariante CM. Omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of interferon-alpha-induced depression: results from a randomized, controlled trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2014 Oct 1;76(7):559-66. View abstract.
- Su KP, Yang HT, Chang JP, Shih YH, et al. Eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids have different effects on peripheral phospholipase A2 gene expressions in acute depressed patients. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2018;80(Pt C):227-233. View abstract.
- Tepaske R, Velthuis H, Oudemans-van Straaten HM, et al. Effect of preoperative oral immune-enhancing nutritional supplement on patients at high risk of infection after cardiac surgery: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2001;358:696-701. View abstract.
- Terano T, Hirai A, Hamazaki T, et al. Effect of oral administration of highly purified eicosapentaenoic acid on platelet function, blood viscosity and red cell deformability in healthy human subjects. Atherosclerosis 1983;46:321-31.. View abstract.
- Thien FC, Mencia-Huerta J, Lee TH. Dietary fish oil effects on seasonal hay fever and asthma in pollen- sensitive subjects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:1138-43. View abstract.
- Thies F, Nebe-von-Caron G, Powell JR, et al. Dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid, but not with other long-chain n-3 or n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, decreases natural killer cell activity in healthy subjects aged >55 y. Am J Clin Nutr 2001;73:539-48. View abstract.
- Thies N. The effect of 12 months' treatment with eicosapentaenoic acid in five children with cystic fibrosis. J Paediatr Child Health 1997;33:349-51. View abstract.
- Toft I, Bonaa KH, Ingebretsen OC, et al. Effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on glucose homeostasis and blood pressure in essential hypertension. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1995;123:911-8. View abstract.
- Vandongen R, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects on blood pressure of omega 3 fats in subjects at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Hypertension 1993;22:371-9. View abstract.
- Watanabe T, Ando K, Daidoji H, Otaki Y, Sugawara S, Matsui M, et al; CHERRY study investigators. A randomized controlled trial of eicosapentaenoic acid in patients with coronary heart disease on statins. J Cardiol. 2017;70(6):537-544. doi: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2017.07.007. View abstract.
- Woodman RJ, Mori TA, Burke V, et al. Effects of purified eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids on glycemic control, blood pressure, and serum lipids in type 2 diabetic patients with treated hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:1007-15.. View abstract.
- Yao JK, Magan S, Sonel AF, et al. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid on platelet serotonin responsivity in patients with schizophrenia. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2004;71:171-6. View abstract.
- Yokoyama M, Origasa H, Matsuzaki M, et al. Effects of eicosapentaenoic acid on major coronary events in hypercholesterolaemic patients (JELIS): a randomised open-label, blinded endpoint analysis. Lancet 2007;369:1090-8. View abstract.
- Zanarini MC, Frankenburg FR. Omega-3 Fatty acid treatment of women with borderline personality disorder: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:167-9.. View abstract.
- Zuijdgeest-Van Leeuwen SD, Dagnelie PC, Wattimena JL, et al. Eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester supplementation: in cachectic cancer patients and healthy subjects: effects on lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Clin Nutr 2000;19:417-23. View abstract.
Have you ever purchased EPA (EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID)?
Did you or will you purchase this product in-store or online?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
What factors influenced or will influence your purchase? (check all that apply)
Where did you or where do you plan to purchase this product?
Do you buy vitamins online or instore?
What factors are most important to you? (check all that apply)