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Colorectal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Prevention - Health Professional Information [NCI] - Description of the Evidence

Cardiovascular Risks Associated With Celecoxib and Rofecoxib Dose/Drugs continued...

In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 36,282 postmenopausal women, the administration of 500 mg of elemental calcium and 200 IU of vitamin D3 twice daily for an average of 7.0 years was not associated with a reduction in invasive CRC (HR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.86–1.34; P = .051).[144] The relatively short duration of follow-up, considering the latency period of CRC of 10 to 15 years and suboptimal doses of calcium and vitamin D, may account for the negative effects of this trial, though other factors may also be responsible.[145]

Use of statins

Overall, evidence indicates that statin use neither increases nor decreases the incidence or mortality of CRC. Although some case-control studies have shown a reduction in risk, neither a large cohort study [146] nor a meta-analysis of four RCTs [147] found any effect of statin use.

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